For almost everything we do as human beings, a Research is needed. In the field of science, military, para-military and even personal businesses. Hence the importance of Research Designs and the need to be familiar with the types and research methods in order to get the one that best suits the kind of research you’re trying to carry out.
A Research design is a methodical, well-aligned and organized procedure used by researchers or scientists to carry out a scientific study, it is a comprehensive co-existence of already identified elements and any other information or data leading to a reasonable end product. A Research design needs to follow a well-structured, pre-planned and well-thought-out methodology, this should be in agreement with the pre-selected research type in order to come out authentic, error-free and accurate.
The purpose of a Research Design.
A Research design provides the researcher with a well-structured, objective plan of study which enables the scientist/researcher to effectively and efficiently assess causes and effect the relationship between different dependent and independent variables such as the classic controlled experiment.
Types of Research Design
Since we have agreed that a Research design is necessary as it enables the smooth sailing of thr varying research components, thereby making the research more reliable, efficient and flexible. It is also important to know the types of Research Designs we have. There are four (4) basic types of research designs and this includes;
- Descriptive research;
Just as the name implies, this is an in-depth kind of Research design which answers the questions WHAT? and HOW?
- Explanatory Research;
The subject of the research is explained in this type of Research Design. It answers the questions WHAT?,WHY? And HOW?
- Exploratory Research;
This kind of Research Design explains the subject matter of the research thereby answering the questions WHAT? and HOW?
- Evaluation research;
This type of research design determines the productivity of the subject matter or program and is therefore quite exquisite. There are two types of Evaluation research.
Quantitative research; this analyzes variable relationships in trems of numbers and statistical strategies to review findings and its generally divided into 4 main types namely;
- Descriptive design
- Correlational design
- Quasi-Experimental design
- Experimental design
Qualitative research; this is also known as exploratory research since it is used to answer the questions WHAT? and HOW? Instead of just predicting the outcome of the research.
How to create a Research Design.
- Pinpoint your learning outcome, objectives, etc;
- Pick out your research questions;
- Develop a research design
- Choose a sampling framework
- Pick suitable methods of data collection;
- Set up appropriate measurement instruments;
- Contemplate dissemination and publication of your findings.
A research method is a well-structured, logical, or standard plan utilized by a researcher or scientist in order to conduct a research.
Characteristics of a good Research Design
- It should maximize reliability
- Minimize bigotries regarding the data collected and reviewed
- Should be error-free
- Should be flexible , effective, efficient, appropriate, reliable, economical, etc
- Should increase reliability and decrease bias of any data or information collected and reviewed.