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Atlantic Fellows Masters at London School of Economics and Political Science in UK 2021/2022

Good news! Atlantic Fellows Masters at London School of Economics and Political Science is currently open. The London School of Economics and Political Science offers the Atlantic Fellows Masters for Social and Economic Equity program in the 2021/22 academic year.

Atlantic Fellows Masters at London School of Economics and Political Science is a fully-covered fellowship based at the International Inequalities Institute at the London School of Economics and Political Science. It is one of seven interconnected Atlantic Fellowships nationwide.

Competent candidates are anticipated to be audacious and prepared to challenge power; see the bigger picture of how inequalities are playing out; are imaginative and daring in the way they envision solutions; who bring care and teamwork into their practice; identify the significance of the lived experience of inequality, and whose lived experience informs their practice; who focus on not progressing their careers but on their obligation to changing the world through joint and combined methods.

Atlantic Fellows Masters at London School of Economics and Political Science Deadline: All applications for the 2021-2022 Atlantic Fellows for Social and Economic Equity Program are open from 5 October 2020 to 31 January 2021. 

Institution: London School of Economics

Program Location: UK

Study Level: Masters

Benefits of Atlantic Fellows Masters at London School of Economics and Political Science

  • The Residential track of the London School of Economics and Political Science is a funded fellowship. The fellowship comprises of complete tuition fees, an £18,000 allowance to finance living expenses while in London, travel to and from Cape Town for the South Africa module, and travel to and from London at the start and end of the active fellowship, as well as reimbursement of visa fees.
  • Modest financial support is accessible for Fellows who have family care responsibilities.


  • The Non-Residential Track of the Atlantic Fellows for Social and Economic Equity program is a financed fellowship. The fellowship comprises of complete tuition fees; a £3,000 grant to support project work; devoted mentorship; travel to and from London/Cape Town for each Module; housing and related expenses during Modules; and reimbursement of visa fees.
  • Modest monetary support is accessible for Fellows who have family care responsibilities. The program also has a Resilience Fund to which Fellows can apply in the event of emergencies.

Eligibility for Atlantic Fellows Masters at London School of Economics and Political Science

Candidates to the Atlantic Fellows Masters at London School of Economics and Political Science must be able to show their ability to fulfill the eligibility criteria.


  • Candidates should be eligible for admission to the London School of Economics’ MSc in Inequalities and Social Science. These requirements include a 2:1 degree or equivalent in any field. A background in social science and/or work experience in the social policy field is helpful but not important. Please refer to the LSE website for complete information.
  • GRE/GMAT requirement: None.
  • Candidates must fulfil LSE’s standard English Language Requirement.
  • Candidates must have 7 to 10 years of experience showing courage, care, leadership and commitment in progressing equitable solutions to inequality.

Note: Candidates who have accomplished a PhD, accomplished an MSc within the past three years, or who are presently studying for a degree, will not typically be deliberated for the Residential track.


  • Candidates should have accomplished a 2:1 undergraduate degree or equal in any field, although in special circumstances, work experience may be considered in lieu of formal higher education qualification.
  • GRE/GMAT requirement: None.
  • Candidates must fulfill LSE’s standard English Language Requirement.
  • Applicants need to have 7 to 10 years of experience demonstrating courage, care, leadership and dedication to advancing equitable solutions to inequality.

How to Apply for Atlantic Fellows Masters at London School of Economics and Political Science

All application submissions to the Atlantic Fellows Masters at London School of Economics and Political Science must be submitted online, via LSE’s Graduate Admissions online portal.

Click here for more details and to apply for Atlantic Fellows Masters at London School of Economics and Political Science.

The Difference Between an Internship and Apprenticeship

The Difference Between an Internship and Apprenticeship: Internships and apprenticeships are conveyed to help students or young professionals gain skill in an industry. So in this article, we will show you the difference between an internship and apprenticeship

Internships and apprenticeships give you entry-level experience in a career, but they work in different ways. They are frequently described as programs that allow you to earn while you learn, apprenticeships pay you to learn a skill or trade in the work environment.

Definition of an Internship

The idea of an intern first started in the medical world. The term actually referred to an individual who practiced medicine but was not licensed (yikes). After WWI, the term developed to mean a medical student in training after medical school.

What’s the aim of an internship?

An internship provides an individual with an overview of a position or field for a short period of time. It’s surface-level learning pitched toward applicants who are still surveying their interests and deciding what options they’d like to pursue.

Definition of Apprenticeship

Apprenticeship means a course of on-the-job-training where the apprentice goes through the training for a fixed duration on a contract basis, in which he learns certain skills needed for a particular trade and occupation.

However, in an apprenticeship training, the trainee learns and earns at the same time. The training may also be part-time or full-time, depending on the terms of the contract. The orientation program is directed for new employees.

How’s an apprenticeship any different?

The traditional idea of an apprenticeship originated in the middle ages. It also referred to the practice of assigning a novice to learn a trade under the direction of an expert. Generally, people likely associate the apprenticeship model with vocational careers.

An apprenticeship is a position which is meant for someone who has decided on a career path and is looking to gain in-depth experience in a certain field. It also consists of a combination of hands-on experience and classroom education.

Under an apprenticeship model, you also learn the business from successful executives and firms. You learn design from top designers or gain perception into social innovation from leading entrepreneurs, educators, and experts.

There’s an educational theory that gives insight on how apprenticeships are beneficial because they provide hands-on, experiential learning that involves the learner in the process within the exact physical context and occupies them in authentic activities.

The Difference Between Apprenticeship and Internship

The difference between an internship and apprenticeship are provided below:

  • Apprenticeship is a training program directed in an industry or undertaking where the trainee gets an opportunity to learn and earn at the same time. An internship is a system of training in which the trainee gets a chance to learn the required skills and knowledge, which are needed by him in getting jobs.
  • Apprenticeship is a work-based training, while internship is work-based learning.
  • The time duration of an apprenticeship is actually longer than the internship training.
  • Apprenticeship training is provided to potential employees, while internship training is provided to undergraduate students.
  • Apprenticeship training is seen as a part of Vocational Education and Training. On the contrary, Internships may or may not be a part of formal education.
  • The trainees of apprenticeship training are usually called an apprentice. While, the trainees in case of internship training are known as interns.
  • Apprenticeship training ends with a job in the hand of trainees whereas internship training ends with an experience to the applicant.
  • Apprenticeship training is always paid. Not like Internships which may or may not is paid.
  • In apprenticeship training, the induction and orientation training is usually given which is not in the case of internship training.

Intern and Apprentice Salaries

Internships are usually volunteer placements. Most posts don’t pay a salary, although some do. So unpaid internships in the private sector must meet the regulations under the Fair Labor Standards Act.

However, this prevents organizations from using interns as a substitute for paid employees and make sure that internships have an accurate educational focus. Apprenticeships pay a salary, but you’re likely to earn low wages to start with. This usually increases as you gain experience and skills during your apprenticeship training.

Employment Chances for Intern and Apprentice

Interns may not be seeking for immediate jobs and may simply use placements to assess possible careers. However in some cases, this can be an important way to get into an organization, and some employers offer jobs after successful internships.

This experience may help you get jobs in the future, adding applicable experience to your resume and helping you build a network of contacts. Hence, if you’re an apprentice, you have a job until the end of your program, when you reach journey-level status. At this stage, you get a certificate of completion.

This certificate, combined together with your training, experience, and any qualifications you may have earned during your apprenticeship, may enhance your job prospects. Well in some cases, the organization with which you trained may offer you a job.

The Difference Between Send and Sent

The Difference Between Send and Sent: Verbs are the action words in a sentence that express or take action or the state of being.  Verbs are basic building blocks of a sentence or phrase, telling a story about what is taking place. In this article, we will show you the difference between send and sent.

Verbs are mostly modified to induce the tense, voice, mood, and aspect and the agreement with the gender, person, and a number of the subject.

The tense decides the moment in which the action takes place, if it has been done previously, now or later. The main tenses in the English language are the present, past, and future tenses. However, each of these tenses has a perfect form, a progressive form, and a perfect progressive form.


The word ‘send’ is described as ‘cause to go or be taken to a particular destination.’ It is also synonymous with the words: convey, transmit, dispatch, transport, deliver, yield, direct, remit, mail, or Forward.

The verb ‘send’ is often used in the world of sport. To ‘send it’ means to not be too critical and go insanely big. The word has a Proto-Germanic origin with the main word being ‘sandijanan’ which directly interprets as ‘go’ or ‘journey.’ The verb was then grasp into Old English as the word ‘sendan’.  The Old English word simply means ‘’send, throw,’’ or ‘’send forth.’’

However, the continuous tense and future continuous tense of the word ‘send’ is ‘sending.’ The continuous tense indicates that the action is in progress, and the future continuous tense means that the action is going on at the moment and is still to take in the future.


1. Please send my sister the parcel.

2. I send her a snack every day.

3. Send my best wishes to your family. 

4. He will send you a doll. 

5. What book should I send? 

6. Will she send me a laptop? 

7. Kate always sends me a text 

8. Please send him a striped tie. 

9. Can we send you a clip? 

10. She will send you a car.


This is the past tense of the word ‘Send’. The word ‘Sent’ also doubles as both the past simple tense and past participle tense of the word and its past progressive tense and past perfect progressive tense. The past tense ‘Sent’ means that the action in question has already taken place. Sent is used after you’ve started or ended the action.


1. I have sent your sister the parcel.

2. Her snack has been sent.

3. I sent my wishes to your family.

4. He had sent you a doll.

5. Where is the book I sent you?

6. Who bought the laptop i sent? 

7. Kate sent you a text through the month.

8. Did you send him a striped tie?

9. Where is the clip I sent?

10. I sent him the car as promised. 

The Difference Between Send and Sent

  • The verb ‘send’ means ‘to cause to go or to be taken somewhere’. The word ‘sent’ is a combination of the verb ‘send.’
  • The word ‘Send’ generally interprets as an instruction to send while ‘Sent’ means that the object has been sent and assumed to have arrived.
  • The verb ‘send’ is the present perfect tense of the verb whereas, ‘sent’ is the past tense and past participle tense of the verb.
  • The verbs ‘Send’ and ‘Sent’ have progressive forms. However, the word ‘send’ is used in its present form and the word ‘sent’ is used in its past form.
  • The word ‘’Send’’ can be used as a command or as an infinitive while ‘’Sent’’ can’t be used as a command.
  • The word ‘Sent’ can be used as an adjective and as part of the passive voice while the other way round is the case of ‘Send’.
  • ‘Send’ is the present tense of the verb while ‘Sent’ is the past tense and past progressive tense.
  • The word ‘Send’ is to be used before you complete or begin the action while ‘Sent’ is to be used after you’ve started or ended the action.
  • ‘Send’ and ‘Sent’ means different tenses of the same verb.
  • The verb ‘Send’ is an irregular verb; that’s why instead of adding “ed” to form its past tense, it changes its spelling to form the word ‘sent.’

The Major Difference Between This and These

The Major Difference Between This and These: A pronoun is a word that can also function as a noun phrase when used by itself or refers either to the participants in the discourse or to someone or something when mentioned elsewhere in the discussion. The easiest way to see a pronoun is as a word that replaces the noun is a sentence. So in this article, we will show you the major difference between this and these.

There are various types of pronouns which include interrogative pronouns, personal pronouns, indefinite pronouns, reciprocal pronouns, possessive pronouns, relative pronouns, intensive pronouns, reflexive pronouns and demonstrative pronouns.

Demonstrative pronouns are the type of pronouns used to point to something specific within a sentence. These pronouns can show items in space or time, and they can either be singular or plural. Demonstrative pronouns are typically used to describe animals, places, or things, but they can be used to describe people when the person is identified.

Some examples of a demonstrative pronoun include those, these, this, such, that.

This and These

‘This’ is usually used to describe a singular countable noun and ‘these’ is a pronoun used for plural countable nouns.  Countable nouns are nouns that can be counted so they have a plural form to represent when the item is more than one while a non-countable noun, on the other hand, has no plural form.

Examples of ‘This’ and ‘These’ Pronoun

1. What does this place remind you of?

2. Is this what she means?

3. I’ll post these letters on my way to school.

4. This was my father’s car.

5. This is where the story ended.

6. These were the girls who broke the door.

7. These blades cut well.

8. These clothes are beautiful, aren’t they?

9. I wonder if she’ll recognize you after all these years.

10. Aren’t these cats hungry?

The Major Difference between ‘This’ and ‘These’

1. The pronoun ‘this’ is usually used with singular and uncountable nouns.


 Try to repeat this routine every day.

2. The pronoun ‘these’ is usually used with plural countable nouns.


 She can drive any one of these cars.

3. The Pronoun ‘this’ is with words describing dates and time.


 I’ll be coming over to your house this evening.

 Bridget sounds pretty sad this afternoon.

 Catherine will be in Africa this week.

4. Both “this” and “these” are often used to point things that are physically close to the speaker.


 Why are you on this cap?

 These aren’t the things I requested for.

5. “This” and “These” are used to refer to things or ideas.


 Put the beef and red meat on the gas cooker. Then heat this over a low flame until it boils well.

 These weren’t our first encounters with the Jews.

6. The pronoun “this” is used to refer to people when we want to identify ourselves or others or to ask for the identity of other speakers.


 Michael, this is my mother, Mrs. Mary.

 This is my best friend, Joshua.

7. ‘These’ is often used to indicate an object of view.


 Do these belong to Kate Brandon?

8. Both pronouns are often used to identify emotional distance: In general, we use ‘this’ and ‘these’ to refer to things that we feel positive about or that we are happy to be associated with.


 Isn’t this the lovely gift your dad bought for you?

 I love these new pictures on your wall.

9. “This” is often used as a replacement for ‘a’ and ‘an’. In this case, ‘this’ is used to refer to something important or recent, or to introduce something or someone new in a story.


 This guy defrauded John and his sister.

 This Man isn’t good at repairing televisions.

10. Both pronouns are often used to replace determiners.

The Major Difference Between Where and Were

The Major Difference Between Where and Were: The English language contains a lot of different words that sound exactly the same, but the words have very different interpretations. There are many of these similar-sounding words which are called ‘homonyms.’ So in this article, we will show you the major difference between where and were.

‘Where’ and ‘were’ are homonyms. ‘Where’ is the most flexible of the three words. It can also function as an adverb, conjunction, and a pronoun. The word ‘were’ is actually a state of being verb used to describe something that happened in the past.

The Meaning of the Word ‘Were’

Were is used in the conditional statements in the imaginary/ unrealistic situation. In this case, it can be used with singular subjects, e.g., If I were the head of this country, I would give a three day holiday for no reason.

‘Were’ is also known to be used as a verb. It is then referred to as the plural past word. The pronunciation of ‘Were’ /wə/ go along with the ‘schwa sound.’ Were is a verb according to the parts of speech, and it is used in imaginary conditional statements. Were is the plural past form of the verb “be” specifically used for plural subjects. The word ‘Were’ alliterate with ‘stir, fur, her, etc.’

The word ‘Were’ is referring to a state (past state of being). It has four alphabets. Were is a monosyllabic word. ‘Were’ is also a past verb form that is used for plural subjects. It is the past form of the word ‘’are,’’ and also of the word ‘‘was.’’ Were shows what happened in the past.

Examples of “Were”

They were studying for the whole night long.

His parents were not willing to send him abroad.

The exchange students were sent to London, Australia, and America.

What were you doing yesterday that you didn’t come to my house?

This is the school where I started my career.

The Meaning of the Word ‘Where’

Where is the most flexible of the three words. It can also function as an adverb, conjunction, and a pronoun. All of the uses of where have to do with a location, place or situation.

Where is also a word that is used when asking a question about a place or a location. You should use where only when you are enquiring about a place or asking the destination of a journey. Look at the following examples to understand the meaning of where.

London is the city where the Queen lives.

Where is your school?

Where are they going?

The Major Difference Between Where and Were

The Major Difference Between Where and Were includes the following:

1. ‘Where’ is an adverb of time; on the other hand, while ‘Were’ is known as a verb.

2. Where is not identified for any singular or plural nouns; while Were is determined to be used for plural subjects.

3. Where rhymes with “hair,” while the word ‘Were’ rhymes with “stir.”

4. The word ‘Where’ contains five alphabets; while ‘Were’ has four alphabets.

5. The word ‘Where’ is a -wh question; while ‘Were’ is referred to as the plural past word.

6. Where deals with the directions on the converse Were deals with a past state of being.

7. ‘Where’ is flexible; inversely, “Were” is less flexible.

8. Where cannot work as a verb whereas Were works as a verb.

9. The pronunciation of Where is /wɛː/ and the pronunciation of Were is /wə/.

10. ‘Were’ is pronounced with the schwa sound, while ‘where’ uses the ‘long e’ stress with a gentle ‘h’ sound at the start.

The Major Difference Between Faith And Believe

The Major Difference Between Faith And Believe: All over religions, ‘faith’ and ‘belief’ have different meanings and mean different specialized concepts. But, in the multitude of usages of the word, despite the similarities, there are a number of differences between them.

The differences lean more to the specified usage of them within the different religious settings and how both words, functionalism, can come to mean different things and suggest varying degrees of intensities. So in this article, we will show you the major difference between faith and believe.

Faith And Believe

Faith simply means trust and confidence. Its belief, augmented by being integrated with everything we understand to be proven and true, so gaining the status of truth. To have faith in something needs more than mere belief because faith is something we might always have to depend on.

Belief is actually a personal choice. It’s also a state of mind brought on by choosing to accept some information. The information might be unfeasible (like ‘there is a god’) or verifiable (like ‘all bees make honey’). People are frail, so either way, it could be wrong. Belief can also be temporary, changeable, or circumstantial.

The Major Difference Between Faith And Believe

1. To make reference to a religion: You frequently hear a person say they belong to a particular faith. Faith in this setting is used to refer to a person’s religion. In this manner, we have the Islamic faith, the Christian faith, the Buddhist faith, etc.

2. By definition: Faith involves the anticipation of expected realities without direct evidence. While by definition, a belief involves trust in the reality of something based on direct evidence.

3. Good faith: The word ‘in good faith’ is frequently used to refer to a situation where one execute their obligations with a heart that purely accepts and trusting the sanctity or reason for executing that obligation, notwithstanding the discomforts it causes him/her. Therefore, faith as a term carries the elements of trust and convinced obligation with it.

4. Intensity: Some religions of the world show faith as a concept more great and deep than belief. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, for example, faith makes a person to ‘move mountains’.

5. Sight: The feature of sight is at least a partial necessity for the achievement of belief. The saying goes ‘seeing is believing’ as evidence to that fact. But, the element of sight is unnecessary, if not ungainly, the component of faith. But, faith is said to be demanded where sight is an impossibility or one is advised even to get rid of their trust in their sense of sight. The saying goes ‘faith is blind’ as evidence to this fact.

6. Rationalization: It is a general thing to see a person try to rationalize his/her beliefs. To have one point to reasonable elements and build up logical arguments to support what one believes in. Faith also comes with no such justification. Faith is, as many practitioners put it, irrational, illogical, and unexplainable.

7. Passive Vs Active: One may also have beliefs that are passive which explains what one feels about an issue and serves as the way which one views the world. Faiths are no such passive idea. It is needed that one attends to the workings of one’s faith regularly. Faith is an active belief. 

8. Supernatural: One’s faith is typically tied to the workings of the supernatural. Also, many religions point that one can only access the realm of the supernatural by controlling faith and not merely by believing in the existence of God/gods.

9. Diligence: Faith as an idea spreads into the workings of everyday and corporate living as an occurence representing through diligence. Therefore, people, many decide to be ‘faithful’ or ‘unfaithful’ to their spouses or jobs or appointments. Most formal letters are closed off with ‘yours faithfully’ as a promise of thoroughness. The idea of belief carries no such implication.

The Important Difference Between Childish and Childlike

The Important Difference Between Childish and Childlike: You might have heard the two words used on different people and formulated for a moment that they meant the same things. In reality, they don’t. ‘Childish’ is frequently used with very negative implications. In this article, we will show you the major difference between childish and childlike.

The word ‘childlike’ is used with more positive implication, depending on the age of the person being addressed. What frequently confuses most people is the root word for both adjectives being ‘child’ while the suffixes ‘ish’ and ‘like’ almost mean the same things.

Sometimes, people confuse one for the other, using one where the other should be used. In the following section, however, we will look at 10 ways in which the two adjectives vary in their usage and perception.

The Important Difference Between Childish and Childlike

1. Age: Age plays a vital factor in understanding the differences between the two words. The word ‘childish’ which means a type of behavior typical to children with respect to their absurdity and immaturity is however never targeted at children.

Basically, a person has to not be a child in order to qualify for the adjective. ‘Childlike’ on the contrary is used on both children and adults alike to refer to qualities such as innocence, and ebullient, brimming personalities.

2. Purpose: But how subjective this may be, the aim of using the word ‘childish’ is frequently to draw attention to a person’s apparently immature character, attitudes, and actions. The aim of using ‘childlike’ is to draw attention to a person’s harmless and naiveté.

3. Offense: When someone tells another that the other is behaving in a childish manner, there is a great likelihood that the other person will be hurt or offended. When a person tells another that the other is behaving in a childlike manner, the proneness to offend is so little as to be considered negligible.

4. Reception: In general, words are received in a diversity of manners depending on the situations in which they are said and how they are said. But, ‘Childish’ tends to be received in a more provocative manner than ‘childlike’ which may likely be received warmly and happily.

5. Appeal: In general, the word ‘childlike’ has a warm, sparkling, modest appeal which is generally pleasing and cordial. The word ‘childish’ on the contrary has a provocative and offensive. It also has a huge appeal which is generally unpleasant and hardly promotes courtesy.

6. Synonyms: One way to tell words aside is by knowing the kinds of words they are gramatically similar to by virtue of their synonyms. The synonyms of ‘childish’ are: immature, jejune, puerile and babyish while the synonyms of ‘childlike’ are innocent, naïve, and frank, unpretentious.

7. Adore Vs Abhor: In stories or writings generally, one may notice that people use the word ‘childlike’ frequently in a way that shows adoration on a person. On the contrary, they use the word ‘childish’ in a way that indicates a hatred of that person’s character.

8. Emotional connotations: Using the word ‘childish’ can imply emotionally, a leaning towards irritability, moody impatience, and anger. Using the word ‘childlike’ on the other hand can signify emotionally a leaning towards gleeful, happy, and innocent things.

9. Positive/Negative: As can be gathered so far, the two words can be contrasted along negative and positive lines, ‘childish’ is the word with a more negative claim and ‘childlike’ being the one with a more positive claim.

10. Disparaging: In conclusion, as you must know by now, ‘childish’ is basically a disparaging word that is a word intended to bad-mouth or belittle, while ‘childlike’ is not.

The Major Difference Between White and Distilled Vinegar

The Major Difference Between White and Distilled Vinegar: Vinegar is an acidic liquid of acetic acid and it traces chemicals that are produced through fermentation. Vinegar usually contains 5–20% acetic acid by volume. Typically, the acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol or sugars by acetic acid bacteria. In this article, we will show you the major difference between white and distilled vinegar.

Vinegar is the earliest thing being used for different purposes. Vinegar is usually gotten from fruits like apple, cider and grapes. The liquid is being used surplus for cooking, baking and food preparation.

The various types of vinegar include rice vinegar, cane vinegar, malt vinegar, beer vinegar, coconut vinegar, white vinegar, raisin vinegar, distilled vinegar, etc. The various types of vinegar and the types are simply dependent on the source materials. Each kind of vinegar has its own unique flavor profile and usually a novel reason outside of the kitchen.

White Vinegar

Not like the idea proposed by its name, white Vinegar is clear. It is typically produced from sugar cane, the extract of which is put through acid fermentation. In this process, the liquid is oxidized, to make the chemicals in it to change and become more acidic.

White vinegar on the other hand is made by the combination of acetic acid with water. This process produces bitter vinegar than when it’s naturally fermented; it also has 5% to 20% acetic acid content and is regarded stronger than any of the other types.

White vinegar is commonly known for its excellent cleaning properties. For example, when baking soda is introduced to white vinegar, it also produces a foaming solution that is useful for removing grease and baked-on food off pans.

Distilled Vinegar

Distilled Vinegar is made from any type of vinegar. It is referred to as Virgin vinegar. It could also be made from rice, malt, balsamic, honey, wine, date, kiwifruit, fruit, rice, coconut, kombucha, palm, cane and much more.

‘Distilled’ means that the liquid component is parted from the base mixture. This then produces a colorless solution with 5-8% acetic acid in the water – very weaker than white or spirit vinegar. Distilled vinegar, being the milder variation, is very suitable for cooking, food additives, flavoring,  and food preservation. It can also be used as a household remedy.

White Vinegar and Distilled Vinegar

The major difference between the vinegar and distilled vinegar is that vinegar is a liquid with a bitter taste that contains about five to twenty percent of acetic acid and is gotten by fermenting dilute alcoholic liquids. Also, refined vinegar is a neutral spirit that goes through fermentation and contains five to eight percent of acetic acid.

The Major Difference Between White and Distilled Vinegar

  • White vinegar is made by natural fermentation of sugar cane extract or by joining acetic acid with water. Distilled can also be made from any time of vinegar, where more ethanol is parted from the base mixture.
  • White vinegar contains about 5 – 20% of acetic acid while distilled vinegar includes 5 – 8% of acetic acid.
  • White vinegar has a pH value of 2.4 while distilled vinegar has pH value of 2.6.
  • White vinegar is bitter than distilled vinegar due to more concentration of acetic acid.
  • White is also used for food preparation purposes whereas distilled vinegar is used for different other cleaning, polishing, and disinfection of bacteria.
  • White vinegar is gotten from fruits mostly while distilled vinegar is gotten from the maze, malt, corn, and barley, etc.
  • White vinegar is commonly known for its excellent cleaning properties. The Cleaning properties of distilled vinegar depends on the source material.
  • Distilled are typically helpful in relieving sunburn and it prevents the skin from peeling or blistering whereas, white vinegar is a bit too strong for that.
  • White vinegar is obtained by fermentation of the alcohol. Distilled vinegar is obtained by fermentation of the distilled alcohol or neutral spirit.
  • Some examples of White vinegar include grapes vinegar, apple cider vinegar, etc while the examples of Distilled vinegar include malt vinegar, cane vinegar, etc.

The Major Difference Between Goat and Lamb

The Major Difference between Goat and Lamb: Goats and lambs are both well-known ruminants that walk around our environment eating green plants. They belong to the same Mammalia class, Bovidae family, and Caprinae subfamily. In this article, we will show you the major difference between goat and lamb.

Goats and Lambs four-chambered stomachs cause them to take long afternoon naps, while the rumen processes contents from the stomach or abomasum. Aside from these similarities, there aren’t much shared by these animals. 

Goat and Lamb

The sheep is typically thicker than its comparative goat; its horns, when present, are more different; it has scent glands in its face and hind feet, and the males lack the beards of goats.

Sheep typically have short tails. In every single wild species of sheep, the outer coat appears as hair, and underneath this lies a short undercoat of fine fleece that has been expanded into the wool of domesticated sheep. Male sheep are called rams, the females are called ewes, and their young ones: sheep.

Goats are so intelligent and independent while lambs like to stay with the flock and get lost easily when parted from other lambs or sheep.


On an average, domestic goats might weigh around 15 kg to 130 kg depending on the breeds. Typically, most common colors in domestic goats include black, brown, red, tan and white. The colors are totally dependent on the breed.

Majority of domestic goats have horns and beards. Typically, male goats are likely larger than the female. Domestic goats are more friendly in nature and gentle. They can easily be raised because of their tame nature. If you limit your domestic goats inside a fence that is free from prey, they will live and grow there happily.


Lambs are cud-chewing mammals of the genus Ovis. The sheep is typically thicker than its relative the goat; its horns, when present, are more differing; it has scent glands in its face and hind feet, and the males lack the beards of goats. Sheep typically have short tails.

However, in the wild species of sheep, the external coat takes the form of hair, and under this lies a short undercoat of fine wool that has been developed into the fleece of domesticated sheep.

Sheep also has a fleece, curly, crimped fur all over their body except for their face. Some sheep breeds, like the Merino sheep, have thick, tight crimped fleeces that make fine wool.

The Major Difference Between Goat and Lamb

1. Sheep or lambs are mammals that belong to the Bovidae family and the Ovis aries species. A goat belongs to the Bovidae family but is of the Capra hircus species.

2. Goats have 60 chromosomes but a lamb has 54.

3. Goats and Lambs eat plants but goats eat the tops of plants rather than those near the ground like lambs do.

4. Goats are very intelligent and independent while lambs are very dependent on each other. Lambs also get lost when separated from the flock.

5. Goats smell and likely attract parasites such as lice and ringworms whereas lambs are less smelly and likely become infected with stomach worms.

6. Sheep milk also has a higher fat content than goat milk.

7. Mutton is sheep meat while chevon is goat meat.

8. Goat meat is leaner, lower fat and less cholesterol whereas lamb meat has a higher fat and cholesterol content.

9. Goats have hair that does not need to be removed regularly while sheep or lambs have fleece that is removed at least once a year.

10. Lambs have cropped tails and are usually hornless whereas goats have horns and tails that can point up.

Masters Scholarships at Lappeenranta University of Technology in Finland 2021

Good news! Masters Scholarships at Lappeenranta University of Technology is presently open. LUT in Finland is offering some of University Scholarships at the moment for Masters Students from Non-EU/EEA nations in the 2021/2022 academic session.

Scholarship grants are offered for scholars with a non-EU/EEA nationality (apart from the Swiss scholars), who are applying through Regular Admission to Master’s Program/s at LUT University (taught in English) and who are expected to pay a tuition fee.

Partner University Scholarship Program at LUT University: Scholarships are available for scholars from the partner academic institution with a citizenship of a non-EU/EEA nation (excluding Switzerland), who are applying through Double Degree Admission or Trilateral/Joint Degree Admission to a Master’s Program at LUT University (taught in English) and who are expected to pay a tuition fee.

LUT University is a revolutionary science university in Finland, bringing together the fields of science and business ever since 1969. LUT international community is comprised of approximately 6,000 students and experts engaged in scientific research and academic education. LUT has a custom of strong connections with the business community. The Finnish business journal “Talouselämä” has rated LUT as the finest university in business technology cooperation in Finland. The academic institution promotes business generated by scientific research. This is established by the university’s own investment company Green Campus Innovations, which supports LUT’s research-based start-up companies.

Deadline for Masters Scholarships at Lappeenranta University of Technology: The application period for all Master’s programs is ongoing and deadline will be announced later.

Program Location: Finland

Study Level: Masters

Institution: Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT)

Benefits of Masters Scholarships at Lappeenranta University of Technology

Three Different Categories of benefits for Masters Scholarships at Lappeenranta University of Technology:

  • Tuition Fee Scholarship of 50%: Covering for 50% of the tuition fees
  • Tuition Fee Scholarship of 100%: Covering for 100% of the tuition fees
  • Complete Scholarship: Covering for 100% of the tuition fees in a 2-year Master’s Program plus, the living expenses for EUR 5 600, 00 yearly.
    NOTE: All the Programs are not offering Full Scholarships.
  • scholarships are not accessible for the first academic year in Biorefineries and Industrial Design Engineering

Eligibility for Masters Scholarships at Lappeenranta University of Technology

  • Other than the citizenship being a non-EU/EEA one, there are no exact criteria for being qualified to apply for Masters Scholarships at Lappeenranta University of Technology.
  • If required to make a tuition fee payment, you are qualified to apply for a scholarship when applying through Regular Admission / Double Degree Admission / Joint Degree Admission.

Masters Scholarships at Lappeenranta University of Technology – Selection Criteria

  • A limited amount of scholarships for each program will be given in the order of the peak points achieved in the academic evaluation throughout the admission process.
  • Guaranteed declarations about chances on possibility of being granted a scholarship or not unfortunately cannot be given as it all depends on the other applicants also.
  • Masters Scholarships at Lappeenranta University of Technology is granted for the 1st academic year with an option for the 2nd academic year, if successfully completing your studies as expected on the first year.

How to Apply for Masters Scholarships at Lappeenranta University of Technology

  • A student will apply for Masters Scholarships at Lappeenranta University of Technologyin general, not for a scholarship in a specific category.
  • Certainly no further documents for applying for the Masters Scholarships at Lappeenranta University of Technology are required.
  • When expected to pay a tuition fee, you are qualified to apply for a scholarship when applying through Regular Admission / Double Degree Admission / Trilateral/Joint Degree Admission.
  • You will apply for a scholarship on the same application form when applying for the Master’s Program.

Click here for more details and to apply for Masters Scholarships at Lappeenranta University of Technology.

Research Career Re-entry Fellowships in the UK 2021

Good news! Research Career Re-entry Fellowships is presently open. Wellcome Trust in the UK is donating the Research Career Re-entry Fellowships to postdoctoral research scientists, giving them the opportunity to re-form their scientific careers after an incessant break from research of no less than two years.

Wellcome exists to improve health for every person by helping great ideas to succeed. They are a worldwide charitable foundation, both politically and financially independent. They support scientists and researchers ideas on serious issues, fuel imaginations, and spark debate.

Their funding covers more than 14,000 individuals in more than 70 nations. In the next five years, they target to spend up to £5 billion helping thousands of inquisitive, fervent people all over the world explore ideas in science, population health, medical innovation, the humanities and social sciences and public engagement.

Benefits of Research Career Re-entry Fellowships

Research Career Re-entry Fellowships will cover the entire cost of your salary for the whole period of the grant.

They will provide:

  • a fellowship supplement of £7,500 per year if you are:
    – a non-clinical researcher
  • the extra employer’s contributions needed to fund the supplement.
  • If you have to move to take up the post at your host organization, you can request for £1,000. You’ll need to justify this.
  • research expenses
  • funds for pertinent research retraining, e.g. for a skills or MSc course

Eligibility for Research Career Re-entry Fellowships

  • You can apply for a Research Career Re-entry Fellowship if you’ve had a nonstop career break of at least two years and you want to re-establish your research career.
  • They accept career breaks taken because of family obligations, ill health and work outside of research.
  • You must hold a PhD and postdoctoral research experience.
  • You should have begun to make significant contributions to your area of research before your career break, e.g. journals, patents, software development or an influence on policy.
  • You must have an authorized sponsoring organization in the UK or Republic of Ireland that will administer the fellowship for the complete period of the award.

You must have to get Research Career Re-entry Fellowships:

  • a research benefactor who’ll offer you scientific assistance, space and access to resources
  • a counselor who’ll give you independent support and advice.
  • Sponsors/research sponsors and mentors should have solid track records in research and mentorship. They should view their support and mentorship of you as part of a longer-term obligation to help you return to a career in research.
  • You should give deep thought to your choice of research environment, sponsor and mentor.

How to Apply for Research Career Re-entry Fellowships

  • Submit your preliminary application: You must submit your preliminary application through Grant Tracker (opens in a new tab).
  • Assessment of preliminary applications: They’ll evaluate your eligibility, and give advice about your competitiveness and the resources you’ve demanded. A decision will be given you within three weeks of the preliminary application deadline. If appropriate, they will call you to submit a full application.
  • Submit your full application to your host organization for authorization: Complete the full application form on Grant Tracker. Submit it to the ‘authorized organizational approver’ at your host organization for authorization. Ensure you leave enough time for the approver to review and submit your application before the closing date. The approver may ask you to make changes to your application.
  • Host organization reviews your application and submits it to them: Your application must be submitted by 17:00 (GMT/BST) on the deadline day.
  • External peer review: They will look out for written comments on your application from external expert reviewers.
  • Shortlisting: The Basic Science Interview Committee will deliberate your full application. They will call you for an interview if it is successful. They’ll give you a minimum two weeks’ notice and send you unattributed comments from the external peer review.
  • Interview: The Basic Science Interview Committee will carry out interviews at the Wellcome offices in London.

Research Career Re-entry Fellowships Deadline: applications are consider twice a year. Late applications will not be accepted. April 2021 round

Preliminary application deadline: April 8, 2021, 17:00 BST

Click here for more details and to apply for Research Career Re-entry Fellowships.

Bangchak Doctoral Scholarships at Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in Thailand 2021

Good luck! Bangchak Doctoral Scholarships at Asian Institute of Technology is currently open. An application for the Bangchak Doctoral Scholarships in 2021 by Bangchak Initiative and Innovative Centre ([email protected]) at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in Thailand.

Deadline: Applications for Bangchak Doctoral Scholarships close on March 31, 2021 

Program Location: Thailand

Institution: Asian Institute of Technology

Study Level: PhD

Project Details

  • Bangchak Doctoral Scholarships at Asian Institute of Technology addresses fundamental and applied research trials facing the Renewable energy industry worldwide and its objective is to inculcate entrepreneurship and creation of enterprises on knowledge-based innovation. The Centre is generously financed to work together closely with top industries and universities domestically and internationally.
  • The role of the researcher is mostly, but not solely, to carry out innovative research in the field of smart energy platform and bio-based product which will lead to patents and commercial products.  They will act as a connection between both industry needs and academic research goals in order to bring about very structured and well-defined solutions to the industrial problems.  Candidate are should have both educational and industry experience, together with a sound understanding of the wider energy landscape beyond their area of expertise.

Benefits of Bangchak Doctoral Scholarships at Asian Institute of Technology

  • All research assistant scholarships are fully-funded (covering the pay and tuition fees) and open to scholars from any nation.
  • The salary and appointment terms are steady with the present rules for doctoral scholars. The period of student assistantship is 42 months.
  • Selected applicants will get a unique opportunity to co-find an international start-up company with separate funding from BIIC or others.

Bangchak Doctoral Scholarships at Asian Institute of Technology – Eligibility

  • Any nationality is welcome to apply
  • Bachelor’s, first-class (honors) and master’s degrees or equivalent (Master GPA above 3.50 out of 4.0)
  • IELTS or AIT EET score above 6.0

Universal Criteria of Bangchak Doctoral Scholarships at Asian Institute of Technology

  • The duty of the researcher is to carry out groundbreaking research which will lead to patent and commercial products
  • Capability to present results in technical reports, and prepare scientific papers for publication in high impact factor international refereed journals.
  • Capable of working within a project team to accomplish innovative results.
  • Extraordinary communication, organization and interpersonal skills.
  • Understanding and experience in incubation/founding start-up company is added advantage
  • Knowledge and experience in the subsequent areas will be favorable; Artificial Intelligence, IoT, Big Data Analytics, Blockchain, Energy technology, Clean Technology, Smart Cities etc.

 Specific Requirements for Energy Area

  • Pertinent power electronic industrial and research experience
  • Hardware Experience/Knowledge on Converters, prototype development.
  • Extraordinary coding ability in programming tools such as Matlab, Python etc. and knowledge in design and modeling tools like Simulink/PSIM/LabVIEW/ or other power electronics simulation tools

 Specific Requirements for FEBT Area

  • Having BSc and MSc degrees in Biotechnology, Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Food Science and Technology and/or similar relevant subjects

 Precise Requirements for EEM Area

  • Having BSc and MSc degree in biochemical or chemical engineering, civil engineering, environmental engineering, public health science or related applied sciences.
  • Experience in design and modeling of wastewater treatment systems and be capable of programming.
  • Experience/Knowledge on controls of bioreactor.

How to Apply for Bangchak Doctoral Scholarships at Asian Institute of Technology

Please fill the online application. Alongside with this application, candidate should forward the following documents all in one combined PDF file to the following email ([email protected]) on or before the deadline. The successful applicants will get sign up immediately in August 2021 semester.

  • Covering letter
  • Project proposal with good concepts which may result to commercial products/start-ups (maximum of 2 pages)
  • Details about education, exams and prior relevant work/research experience (a CV).
  • Accredited copies of academic diplomas and certificates.
  • Publications that pertinent to the research scope and any other work which the candidate desires to be taken into account and should clearly state the candidate’s contribution.
  • Contact information and names of at least two references

Click here for more details and apply for Bangchak Doctoral Scholarships at Asian Institute of Technology.

Studentship in Inverse Design and Machine Learning Techniques at University of Warwick in UK 2020/2021

Good news! Studentship in Inverse Design and Machine Learning Techniques at University of Warwick is presently open. The University of Warwick calls for submissions for the PhD Studentship in Inverse design and machine learning techniques applied to thermoelectric nanomaterials in the UK for the 2021/2022 academic session. The start date is by arrangement with duration of 3 years.

Project details:

  • Thermoelectric materials convert straight heat into electricity, and they are very promising in contributing to energy savings, decrease of the use of fossil fuels, powering autonomous sensors, etc. Nanostructured thermoelectric materials have lately materialized as an advanced technology with much higher performance and lower prices associated to existing bulk materials.
  • The program makes use of inverse design machine learning techniques to help the design of next-generation nanostructured thermoelectric materials. It will be associated with a larger effort within a European Research Council (ERC) financed project and will use electrothermal transport tools that will be developed within that project. This will be utilized within the Adaptive Sequential Monte Carlo (ASMC) scheme, which can provide parallelization in the optimization process. To haste up the optimization procedure, a well-calibrated Gaussian Process (GP) surrogate will be used to emulate the functionality of existing electrothermal simulators, and then the surrogate will be used within the ASMC algorithm.

Benefits of Studentship in Inverse Design and Machine Learning Techniques at University of Warwick

The yearly remuneration of Studentship in Inverse Design and Machine Learning Techniques at University of Warwickwill be £14,254 (tax-free), for 3 years, with all tuition fees paid at the UK/EU rate.

Eligibility for Studentship in Inverse Design and Machine Learning Techniques at University of Warwick

Due to funding limitations, Studentship in Inverse Design and Machine Learning Techniques at University of Warwickis available for well-qualified UK or EU scholars (overseas scholars can apply but need to meet the difference in costs).

How to Apply for Studentship in Inverse Design and Machine Learning Techniques at University of Warwick in UK 2020

  • To submit application for this post applicants have to complete the online application form and quote scholarship reference NNThermo
  • The moment you have a University ID number you will be summoned to upload your degree certificate, transcripts, CV and a personal statement that give details on your precise research interests and why you should be considered for this award.

DeadlineNone – applications accepted all year round.

University of Warwick

We pledge to share these principles with all fresh scholars and staff members when they arrive at Warwick and underpin our desire to give scholars the finest experience possible whilst studying here.

They enable an environment where the ability to voice ideas is at its basic; a place in which staff and students operate with reciprocated respect, with the sureness that equality of opportunity is accessible to all.

These values signify our expectations of how we behave as a University Community, both as persons and as an institution. They also inform our approach to taking proper action when these expectations are not fulfilled.

Everyone in our community has the right to be treated with dignity and admiration, regardless of their status, rank, grade, belief or any protected characteristic.

Whilst we advocate freedom of expression, ensuring the right of people to express views (within the law) that are unpopular or controversial, we do not accept those views being expressed in ways which do not respect others.

We do not tolerate discrimination

We cherish each other’s individuality. We do not tolerate discrimination. This includes:

  • Ableism
  • Ageism
  • Bullying and harassment
  • Classism
  • Discrimination based on gender reassignment
  • Discrimination based on religion or belief
  • Discrimination relating to parental status.
  • Biphobia, homophobia, or discrimination based on sexual orientation
  • Misogyny
  • Racism, colourism or xenophobia
  • Sexism

All structural or systemic barriers to equality in the University are removed.

Click here for more details and to apply for Studentship in Inverse Design and Machine Learning Techniques at University of Warwick in UK 2020.

IMPRS Studentship at Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen in Germany 2021

Good news! IMPRS Studentship at Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen is currently open. Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen is granting PhD Studentships at the International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) in ”From Molecules to Organisms” in the 2021/2022 academic session.

IMPRS Studentship at Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen affords extraordinary interdisciplinary exercise across the fields of structural, molecular, cellular and developmental biology along with bioinformatics, genomics and evolutionary biology.

The academic institution’s aim is to grant the next generation of scientists with the knowledge and skills to study complex biological processes, which cannot be sufficiently understood within the bounds of single disciplines, in the framework of entire organisms.

Research topics offered to the scholars are drawn from the following traditionally separate fields:

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry and structural biology
  • Bioinformatics and computational biology
  • Molecular and cellular biology
  • Developmental biology and genetics
  • Genomics and proteomics
  • Microbiome science
  • Evolutionary biology and ecology

Overall, nearly half of the junior researchers who get their training at an IMPRS are from Germany and the other half from around the globe. The main component of the 3-year study program is the doctoral thesis representing a major piece of independent research, chiefly in an interdisciplinary topic. Doctoral scholars also gain from regular workshops, which facilitate exchange of information and provide scholars with the opportunity to see their research topic from dissimilar perspectives. However, supervising tutors at both the institution of higher education and the Max Planck Institutes look after the scholars, coach them and exam them.

Deadline: IMPRS Studentship at Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen applications close February 8, 2021 (midnight CET).

Institution: Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen

Program Location: Germany

Study Level: PhD

Benefits of IMPRS Studentship at Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen

  • Every PhD positions are completely financed, generally through support contracts from the Max Planck Society or equivalent contracts from the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen.
  • The contracts include whole coverage by the German social security system, along with health insurance. PhD scholars should anticipate to have a disposable income of at least 1200€ monthly.
  • Funding is normally granted for three years in the initial instance. Funding will be stretched into a fourth year if justified by the circumstances of the PhD project.
  • There are no tuition payments. Enrolment (matriculation) at the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen University of Tübingen is optional and costs approximately 150 €/semester.

Eligibility for IMPRS Studentship at Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen

  • Candidates should have, or expect to have, a degree in natural or computer science from a Masters, Diploma or equivalent program. Your present skills and knowledge should fit well to your proposed field of doctoral research.
  • Bachelors-only candidates: In occasional situations, extraordinarily talented scholars possessing only a BSc degree may be enrolled to the IMPRS. You should have a 4-years honors degree, have outstanding grades and hold extensive and relevant research experience. In such circumstances, added study requirements – to be satisfied during the first year of IMPRS membership – may be assigned.
  • The partaking institutes are dedicated to increasing the number of persons with disabilities in their workforce and therefore hearten applications from such qualified persons.

How to Apply for IMPRS Studentship at Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen

  • Apply Online: The online application to join in September 2021 is currently open.
  • Successful candidates will get their invitation within 4 weeks of the application closing date.
  • Travel costs are compensated and free housing provided. Assistance with visa and travel arrangements is obtainable.

Since 2000, the International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) have become a stable part of our struggles to uphold Ph.D. scholars. Gifted German and foreign junior scientists are offered the opportunity to earn a doctorate under excellent research circumstances. A shared characteristic of the graduate programs at Max Planck Institutes is a close teamwork with universities.

Presently, there are 65 IMPRS. The research schools are created by one or numerous Max Planck Institutes. Though, these IMPRS work in close cooperation with institution of higher education and other – sometimes international – research institutions. This provides an extraordinary framework for the graduate scholars to work in, and is a great advantage in interdisciplinary research projects, or in projects that require special equipment. Presently, 80 Max Planck Institutes are connected with an IMPRS.

Click here for more details and to apply for IMPRS Studentship at Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen.

The Difference Between Ground Beef and Ground Chuck

The Difference Between Ground Beef and Ground Chuck: Beef is the meat of cattle and it is one of the most useful dietary sources of iron. There are different types of beefs which include ground beef and ground chuck. In this article, we will show you the difference between ground beef and ground chuck.

Ground beef is actually the extra pieces after cutting the beef into roasts and steaks, while ground chuck is the beef that comes from the front beef shoulders.

Ground Beef and Ground Chuck

Ground beef is from cheap cuts while ground chuck is from the primal cut (shoulder area). It also means that ground beef is cheaper than its complement. Ground beef has a very high fat level (25% to 30%). The fat level of ground chuck is lower than that of ground beef, i.e. (15% to 20%). Ground beef also has a high-fat content, so it is very juicy and shrinks when cooked.

It is also the reason that the majority of people prefer ground beef over its counterpart roast and believe that ground beef is juicier and more flavorful than ground chuck. Ground chuck has a low-fat substance, and because of this factor, it is somewhat dry.

But, many people prefer ground chuck because of its mild flavor. Ground beef means regular beef. It is finely chopped. It can contain artificial fat trimmings, preservatives, and seasonings to improve the flavor. Ground chuck is the ground beef from original cuts.

Some manufacturers also name it as ‘lean ground beef.’ Ground beef is the cheapest ground beef. It is also the most quickly available beef at meat shops and supermarkets. Ground beef cooks easily and is largely used in meatloaf, tacos, hamburgers, lasagna, spicy kofta, sausages, cottage pies, and meatballs.

What is Ground Beef?

Ground beef is beef that has been subtly chopped with a meat grinder or a knife or mincing machine. It is also used in many recipes including hamburgers and spaghetti Bolognese.

It is quite simply muscle and fat from a bovine or cow that has been ground or cut into very small pieces. Grades such as 90/10 or 80/20 are the ratio of meat to fat and are not a quality grade like prime, choice or select which are used in the US as a standard for the whole animal and all of its ensuing cuts.

Ground beef also has a high-fat content, so it is very juicy and shrinks when cooked. It is also the reason that most of the people prefer ground beef over chuck roast and believe that ground beef is juicier and more flavorful than ground chuck.

What is Ground Chuck?

Ground chuck is the beef that comes from the front of beef shoulders. It is also from the primal cut (shoulder area). It is the most costly of ground beef. The fat level of ground chuck is lower than that of ground beef, i.e. (15% to 20%). Ground chuck also has low-fat content, and due to this factor, it is not juicer rather a bit dry.

Also, most people prefer ground chuck because of its mild flavor. Ground chuck is also the ground beef from original cuts. Some manufacturers also name it as ‘lean ground beef.’ When comparing the price of the two, ground chuck comes a bit cheaper than its counterpart.

The Difference between Ground Beef and Ground Chuck

  • Ground chunk comes from a specific part or from a special cut while ground beef comes from many parts or from other different cuts.
  • Ground beef is also the leftover pieces after cutting it for roasts and steaks.
  • While ground chuck comes with 20 percent fat, the other comes with 27 percent fat.
  • According to the rule, ground beef should not contain any fillers, binders, and water. Ground chuck is originally used for making meatballs or hamburgers.
  • A three-ounce part of ground chuck contains like 209 calories, 14 gm fat (5 gm saturated), 20 gm protein, and no carbohydrates. Whereas, a three-ounce portion of ground beef contains about 184 calories and 10 gm fat (4 gm saturated).
  • Ground beef is the most regularly purchased type of beef and the largest beef item sold in the food stores.
  • Comparing the prices of the two, ground chuck comes a bit cheaper than ground beef.

The Important Difference Between Anode and Cathode

The Important Difference Between Anode and Cathode: Anode and cathode are terms used to refer to terminals of a polarized electrical device. They are the positive and negative terminal of the battery. Anode is a positively charged electrode while cathode is a negatively charged electrode.

Generally, anode is the terminal where the (conventional) current flows into a device from outside, while cathode is the terminal where (conventional) current flows out of the device. Hence in this article, we will show you the important difference between anode and cathode.

Anode is the electrode where electricity flows into. On the contrary, the cathode is the electrode where the electricity flows out of.

What is an Anode?

Anode is the type of electrode in the electric device that typically works as the positively charged terminal. The current flows into the device from outside in anode but when both the electrodes work in reverse polarity, the sequence may not remain the same.

However, in a galvanic cell, the anode is the electrode in which the current flows into the device; hence it is the negative terminal, but in an electrolytic cell, the anode is the electrode in which current flows from the external generator to the anode, that is why it is called the positive terminal in this case.

Anode is also the source of positive charge in the electric device that attracts the negative charge or anion or works as an electron acceptor.

Characteristics Of Anode:

Anode is the positively charged electrode.

It attracts electrons or anions.

Anode may also be a source of positive charge or an electron acceptor.

What is Cathode?

Cathode is the type of electrode in the electric device that typically works as the negatively charged terminal. In cathode, the current flows out of a device which means that electrons flow into this terminal from the outside.

The cathode’s current flow in the electric circuit with respect to the anode can either be positive or negative. It also attracts the positively charged cations, while the negatively charged anions stay away from it.

However, in a device like a battery that takes the energy, the cathode works as the negative electrode, while in the device like a discharging battery which provides the energy, the cathode works as positive electrode.

It should also be kept mentioned here that the electrode is the conductor through which electric current enters or leaves the device. In general, the flow of electrons is always from anode to cathode, notwithstanding the device type and operating mode.

Characteristics of Cathode:

Cathode is the negatively charged electrode.

It also attracts cations or positive charge.

It is the source of electrons or an electron donor. It may also accept positive charge.

Because the cathode may create electrons, which usually are the electrical species doing the actual movement, it may also be said that cathodes create charge or that current moves from the cathode to the anode. This can be so confusing because the direction of current would be defined by the way a positive charge would move. Just note that any movement of charged particles is current.

The Important Difference Between Anode and Cathode

1. Anode and cathode are actually the positive and negative terminal of a battery.

2. The anode is also the electrode where the electricity flows into it while the cathode is the electrode where the electricity flows out of it.

3. Cathode is electricity flowing out the electrode. It also has a large number of electrons.

4. In anode, the current flows into the device from outside. While in cathode the current flows out of a device which means that the electrons flow into this terminal from the outside.

The Important Difference Between Laid and Layed in English Language

The Important Difference Between Laid and Layed: Laid and layed are both similar to the verb lay. Laid is actually the past and past participle of lay. It is famously used in the language. So in this article, we will show you the important difference between laid and layed.

Layed is an old term that was used as the past and past participle of laid. However, both words have the same meaning but one is no more in use.

Laid and Layed

The word ‘Laid’ is the past tense and past participle of the word ‘lay’. ‘Lay’ most frequently means to set something down, both figuratively and metaphorically. 

It can also mean to put something down on a surface. For example, ‘He laid the book on the table.’

Laid can mean ‘to create’ or prepare something. For example, ‘The architects laid out the blueprints for the building.’

This is mostly common in the phrase ‘lay an egg’, which means to produce one. The word has become associated with bets. 

Some examples are: ‘She laid a bet on the first horse entered into the race.’

                                      ‘I will lay odds that you don’t know how to cook.’

So in this case, ‘lay odds’ is a slang term for making a bet.

The word ‘Layed’ is a more complicated story. It is no longer an appropriate word. It is considered old. That is, it can still be used when someone is trying to create an old-time feel, but nobody uses it aside from that. Most of the time in English, verbs can be changed from present tense to past tense by adding an –ed to the end. For instance, ‘walk’ becomes ‘walked’.

But, this is sometimes not the case when the verb ends in a Y. Regular verbs are usually the ones that have a regular conjugation: the past tense and past participle end in –ed. If the –ed is added to the end, like ‘talk’ to ‘talked’, or just the –d is added when the verb already ends in an E, like ‘smoke’ to ‘smoked’. Then there are the irregular verbs, which do not follow this pattern.

However, some verbs that end in Y are not regular. The ones do that have a consonant before the Y are almost always regular. For most of them, when you turn it into a past tense, you turn the Y into an I and then add –ed to the end. For example, ‘try’ becomes ‘tried’.

There are little exceptions, such as “enjoy” and “enjoyed”, as well as “stay” and “stayed’’. Those past tense forms are pronounced differently from other verbs ending in Y: ‘’tried’’ has a long I sound in it, while ‘’stayed’’ does not.

So when the letter before that is a vowel, like in ‘’say’’, then there is no E added. ‘’Say’’ becomes ‘’said’’, ‘’pay’’ also becomes ‘’paid’’, and ‘’lay’’ becomes ‘’laid’’.

That spelling rule was not always the case in English, as indicated by the fact that ‘‘layed’’ once was accepted. The reason this was changed was because of the pronunciation. In current English, the –ed at the end of verbs is pronounced with just the D sound.

In the ancient days, the –ed was pronounced with the ‘eh’ sound as well as the D sound. It is possible that some verbs with a vowel sound before the Y were the first to be pronounced in a way closer to current English.

In some older texts, such as The Faerie Queene from 1590 (over 400 years ago), the spelling was ‘’layd’’, which would seem to specify a more modern pronunciation. If it was the case, then the spelling ‘’layed’’ would not have reflected the pronunciation, so they may have changed it before the spellings were totally set in stone.

The Important Difference Between Make and Model of a Car

The Important Difference between Make and Model of a Car: Car makes and models are differentiating qualities used in identifying or categorizing a particular car. Both a car’s make and model are frequently used with each other or separately for this function. There are also instances when they are used correspondingly but are ultimately different. In this article, we will show you the important difference between make and model of a car.

However, a car’s make is the brand of the vehicle, while the model refers to the name of a car product and sometimes a range of products. 

Make and Model of a Car

The car make means the manufacturer or company that produced the car, while the car model means the car product itself and its registered identification name. These terms are basically used while referring to a car.

Make and model are two terms that give certain information about a product.  Regardless of car models being a gradually exact approach to recognize a vehicle other than simply the car make, it may not be exact enough in many applications.

But depending on the year and trim of a car model, it could be fundamentally unique and treated differently as far as purchasing or selling, looking for vehicle protection or in any event, enlisting the vehicle.

Car Make

The word ‘make’ refers to the manufacturer of a product. It also refers to the company that produces the product. It is the exact brand name used by the manufacturers that have to give it the shape.

When we are talking about cars, make refers to the firms that produce them; namely, brands of cars. For instance, brands like Toyota, Ford, Nissan, Peugeot, Renault, Volkswagen, Ferrari, Mazda, Honda, and Audi refer to the make of cars.

The car is used separately for cars and is the first word that gets shown in the description of any automotive that is in the market.

Car Model

The car model means the different types of cars found within one car brand. Car models have different names within the brand to distinguish them from other vehicles in the lineup. Sometimes car models have certain proper names such as a GMC Yukon. 

In other examples, the car model might just be a number or letter or a combination such as the Audi Q3. Some of the more popular car model names include the Mustang, Prius, Corvette, Explorer, and Beetle.

Car model names are essential to differentiate vehicles as sometimes car makers release very similar vehicles. For instance, the GMC Yukon and the Chevrolet Tahoe are very similar vehicles and, despite the different brands, are owned by the same firm.

The Important Difference Between Make and Model of a Car

1. A car’s make and model typically make up its identification and name.

2. The car make means the manufacturer or company that produced the car, while the car model means the car product itself and its registered identification name.

3. Car models are identifiable and consist of names, initials, or numbers.

4. A car’s entire identification is made by the year of release, the make, and the model.

5. Car makes are frequently differentiated by their country of origin. Many car manufacturers are international firms that have an international market. Whereas, car models are determined by the car manufacturer and the year of their release.

6. The models of cars are determined from various aspects which include the car’s model year, the designated car name, the car chassis, and the trim level. The alphanumeric which is the combination of letters and numbers names are only available for the luxury version of the car.

7. In the order of naming a specific vehicle, the make comes before the model.

8. The maker does not change even after many years while the model keeps changing every year.

Beit Trust Scholarships at University of Leeds in UK 2021

Good news! Beit Trust Scholarships at University of Leeds is currently open. The University calls for applications for Beit Trust Postgraduate Scholarships at the University of Leeds in the UK for the 2021/2022 academic session.

Beit Trust Scholarships at University of Leeds provides numerous awards and is open to candidates domiciled in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe to embark on a one-year taught Master’s program which meets the objectives of the program to provide long-term benefit for their own nation, with the exception of the Master’s of Business Administration (MBA).

Deadline: Applications for Beit Trust Scholarships at University of Leeds close February 12, 2021.

Institution: University of Leeds

Program Location: UK

Study Level: Master’s 

Benefits of Beit Trust Scholarships at University of Leeds

  • Fees, tuition expenses and related academic expenditures. These are paid by the Trust straight to the universities.
  • A personal stipend, index linked in agreement with guidance from an independent authority, covering maintenance support.
  • Other stipends are paid for arrival, a laptop and a return flight home.
  • Tickets are provided for the initial journey to the place of study and on the final return (Economy Class).
  • No stipends are paid for spouses and other family members.

Beit Trust Scholarships at University of Leeds – Eligibility

  • For candidates who are citizens and are presently living in Malawi, Zambia or Zimbabwe who have applied to full-time Taught Master’s courses. Candidates must already possess a degree of equivalent standard to a good UK second class honors degree. Some work or professional experience is strongly suggested.
  • By Act of Parliament, the Beit Trust supports ONLY scholars who are citizens of Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi, and who presently reside there. In addition, the Trust cannot consider submissions from persons who have already begun a course.
  • All candidates (except medical and veterinary doctors) must be below 30 years of age on 31 December of the year of application. Some experience of work after completion of a first degree is strongly suggested. Doctors and vets must be below 35 years of age on 31 December of the application year. They should have accomplished 18 months of internship, and a one-year, preferably rural, posting in the pertinent country.
  • The Trust does not consider candidates for MBAs.

How to Apply for Beit Trust Scholarships at University of Leeds

The next round of Beit Trust Scholarships at University of Leeds will be granted for the academic session beginning September 2021 for universities in the UK.

The process for applying for a Beit Trust Scholarships at University of Leeds is as follows:

  • Only citizens of Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi, who are also inhabitant in and intend to return to those nations, are qualified to apply;
  • It takes a one-year taught Master’s Degree (to UK universities) for applicatiob; and a two-year taught Master’s in South Africa;
  • Applications should be made straight to the partner universities itemized above, and only to those universities, through their websites and in the period starting September 2019 (although some application windows do not open until October. Their websites will guide you);
  • As long as the courses to be pursued are accessible, you may apply to above one Partner University at a time. Without a doubt, we recommend you do so, to upsurge your chances of acceptance, and to widen the scholarship opportunities accessible;
  • The minute you have a conditional acceptance or an offer from your selected partner university, you should apply as quick as possible to The Beit Trust for a scholarship, using this

To get a help for tracking potentially qualified applicants, would you please:

  • Inform the relevant university, as part of your study application, that you will be approaching the Beit Trust for scholarship funding. Please show your work or professional experience;
  • Inform the Trust once you have submitted an application to a partner university;
  • Notify the Trust which course you’ve applied for;
  • Confirm your nationality to the Trust;
  • Zimbabweans and Malawians should send their application forms to [email protected]
  • Zambians should send theirs to [email protected]

Click here to access the application form

Click here for more details and to apply for Beit Trust Scholarships at University of Leeds.

IMCEERES Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree Scholarship in Europe 2021

Good news! IMCEERES Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree Scholarship is currently open. The European Union is offering the International Master in Central and East European, Russian and Eurasian Studies (IMCEERES) in 2021.

This challenging and innovative multiple degree program empowers scholars to understand the history of communism and why it collapsed, gaining detailer knowledge of the process of economic and political transformation in the previous communist states. To this end, the program is designed to offer a broad range of options for innovative study of the region’s shared Communist past and the ways in which this has molded – and continues to shape – the dynamics of post-Communist and post-Cold War transformation. The geographical area to be treated by this program, hence, extends across the wider post-Communist world, in a region that covers Central and Eastern Europe, Russia and the recently independent states of the Caucasus and Central Asia.

A research proposal submitted at the conclusion of semester 1 in first year will define future mobility patterns and study pathway diversification in semester 2. In 2nd year, scholars will remain under the same study pathway. The research proposal will have a solid influence on the allocation of the year 2 pathway partner, where scholars will embark on coursework.  It is envisaged that placements at external organizations will be made obtainable.

The periods of mobility are aimed to empower scholars to engage with a variety of perspectives on the three core themes of the program and promote valuable information and applied skills-based outcomes that will progress into future career opportunities.

IMCEERES Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree Scholarship – Benefits

The IMCEERES Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree Scholarship includes:

  • a contribution to the scholar membership costs (including tuition fees, complete insurance coverage and any other compulsory costs connected to the scholars’ participation in the EMJMD study program.
  • a contribution to student travel and installation expenses
  • a once-a-month subsistence allowance for the whole period of the EMJMD study program

Eligibility for IMCEERES Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree Scholarship

The IMCEERES Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree Scholarship Committee evaluates each application according to the criteria below:

  • Academic merit (e.g. relevance and level of academic qualifications) – 30%
  • IMCEERES Supporting Personal Statement – 45%
  • Quality of (academic) references – 10%
  • Other (e.g. relevant research/professional experiences/interests) – 15%

How to Apply for IMCEERES Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree Scholarship

Candidates must apply online and submit the essential supporting documentation with the online application.

Deadline: IMCEERES Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree Scholarshipapplications will close on January 14, 2021 

The program aims to give scholars a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of historical and modern growths in the society, politics, economics and culture of this large and diverse area. It offers an extensive range of choices for advanced study of the region’s shared and divergent history, allowing scholars the chance to concentrate on certain geographical, linguistic and thematic areas.

The program is structured to meet the needs of a variety of employers in major public, commercial and voluntary institutional surroundings who wish to acquire a specialized knowledge of Central and Eastern Europe, Russia and Eurasia.  The program is also intended to cater for newly graduated first degree holders seeking to enter employment in areas which require people with an in-depth knowledge of the region and highly developed analytical skills.

The International Masters in Central and East European, Russian and Eurasian Studies provides you the exceptional opportunity to study in three or four foreign universities.  Scholars spend their first semester at the University of Tartu, followed by a semester at the University of Glasgow.  The first semester of year two is spent in one of the consortium’s partner universities, based on the scholar’s research interests and existing staff expertise. Fourth mobility periods are also possible, subject to the scholar’s dissertation requirements and institutional expertise.

Click here for more details and to apply for IMCEERES Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree Scholarship.

Lutfia Rabbani Foundation Scholarship at Leiden University in the Netherlands 2021

Good news! Lutfia Rabbani Foundation Scholarship at Leiden University is currently on. Leiden University Fund calls applications for the Lutfia Rabbani Foundation Scholarship for Masters Students in for the 2021/2022 academic year.

The Leiden University Fund and The Lutfia Rabbani Foundation have fused together to support scholars who show outstanding academic excellence and a strong motivation to promote Euro-Arab dialogue. The scholarships will provide one full scholarship yearly to a master student from an Arab nation to attend an advanced master program at Leiden University.

Furthermore, the scholarship is reinforced by a mentoring program that offers the scholarship beneficiary guidance on a personal and professional level and also offers access to the Foundation’s extensive and diverse network and platforms.

Applications to Leiden University are handled year round for the September and February intake. Leiden University Applications take between 4-6 weeks to be processed. Only candidates with an official letter of acceptance from Leiden University will be considered for a scholarship by the Lutfia Rabbani Foundation.

The academic institution advises that housing registration be done as soon as possible. Should an individual decide not to attend Leiden University, the housing application can be cancelled and completely refunded if such id done before the deadline of June 1, 2021

Leiden University was established in the year 1575 and it is one of the foremost international research universities in Europe. There are sev7en faculties and 1 campus in both Leiden and The Hague. The five disciplinary clusters are:

  • Fundamentals of Science
  • Life Sciences
  • Health and Wellbeing
  • Law, Politics and Administration
  • Languages, Cultures and Societies

The University’s academic associates in the province of Zuid-Holland are Delft University of Technology and Erasmus University Rotterdam., Leiden University works intensively with the other members of the League of European Research Universities (LERU) within Europe.

Benefits of Lutfia Rabbani Foundation Scholarship at Leiden University

The maximum amount of the Lutfia Rabbani Foundation Scholarship at Leiden University is €30,000.

Eligibility for Lutfia Rabbani Foundation Scholarship at Leiden University

  • The Lutfia Rabbani Foundation Scholarship at Leiden University is open to Arab scholars who have been enrolled into a one year Master program at Leiden University.
  • Scholars must be citizens from one of the following nations: Algeria, Jordan, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia, Sudan.
  • Candidates must have an Academic excellence
  • Personal growth: Evaluating the contribution the proposed field of study would have on the candidate’s continued academic and professional growth and/or its prospects for impact in the local context.
  • A resilient motivation in line with the ideals of the Lutfia Rabbani Foundation’s goal of promoting Euro-Arab dialogue and understanding
  • Candidates have to show financial need.

How to Apply for Lutfia Rabbani Foundation Scholarship at Leiden University

Important documents to apply for Lutfia Rabbani Foundation Scholarship at Leiden University are:

  • Motivation and purpose statement (in English)
  • CV (in English)
  • Copy of passport
  • Degrees or diplomas with academic transcripts in copies (with English translations)
  • Properly signed references from two academic referees
  • Letter of acceptance from Leiden University.
  • It takes between 4-6 weeks for be applications to be processed by Leiden University. A letter of acceptance from Leiden University, the Lutfia Rabbani Foundation is important to be considered applicants for a scholarship.
  • A detailed program outline of the Master study the scholar aims to pursue at Leiden University (in English)
  • Budget: please be detailed in completing your budget to include tuition fees (and whether you have applied to other scholarship funds) as well as essential costs to be incurred during the academic year. The maximum fund that may be granted is € 30,000 for one academic session
  • Fill in the application form.

Deadline: application deadline is March 31, 2021.

Click here for more details and to apply for Lutfia Rabbani Foundation Scholarship at Leiden University.

Edinburgh Global Undergraduate Maths Scholarships at University of Edinburgh in UK 2021/2022

Edinburgh Global Undergraduate Maths Scholarships at University of Edinburgh is currently open. A lot of scholarship grants are being given to Mathematics scholars of exceptional ability from nations outside the European Union for the academic year 2021/2022 through the Edinburgh Global Undergraduate Maths Scholarships.

The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582  is the sixth oldest institution of higher education in the United Kingdom, English-speaking world and one of Scotland’s earliest universities. The university has five key campuses in the city of Edinburgh. It includes numerous buildings of historical and architectural importance such as those in Old Town. The university played a significant role in Edinburgh becoming a chief intellectual centre during the Scottish Enlightenment, contributing to the city being labeled the “Athens of the North”.

The academic institution is an affiliate of a number of prominent academic organizations, as well as the Russell Group, the Coimbra Group, and the League of European Research Universities. It is the third largest endowed of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and Oxford. In 2018-2019, the university has a collective yearly income of £1,101.6 million, of which £285.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with a total expenditure of £1,236.1 million.

Application Deadline: 31st March 2021.

Eligible Countries: International

Program Location: University of Edinburgh, UK

Areas of Study: Mathematics

Edinburgh Global Undergraduate Maths Scholarships at University of Edinburgh are offered to scholars who are citizens of nations outside the EU for undergraduate study in Mathematics offered by the University of Edinburgh, UK.

The scholarship grants are valued £5,000 yearly and tenable for the period of the program of stud, subject to satisfactory progress.

A scholar is believed to have made Satisfactory Progress in each year if there has been a formal school decision of either “Progress” or “Conditional Progression”, without the individual having to repeat a year. If a scholar does not make reasonable progress in any one year the award will be terminated from that period onwards.

Scholarship cheque are given to the winners at an award ceremony at the commencement of the academic session.

Degree Type: Undergraduate

Eligibility Edinburgh Global Undergraduate Maths Scholarships at University of Edinburgh

  • It is granted to candidates from nations outside the European Union who are accepted for full-time admission to an undergraduate degree program offered by the School of Mathematics at the University.
  • The scholarship is not accessible to scholars already on program.
  • Candidates should have applied through the University and Colleges Admission Service (UCAS) and been offered a place at the University of Edinburgh by the scholarship closing date of 31st March 2021.

Edinburgh Global Undergraduate Maths Scholarships at University of Edinburgh Selection Criteria

Edinburgh Global Undergraduate Maths Scholarships at University of Edinburghis competitive and based on academic merit.

Number of Scholarships: Minimum of Fifteen (15)

Scholarship Worth: £5,000 yearly.

Duration of Sponsorship: Awards are tenable for the duration of the program of study.

How to Apply for Edinburgh Global Undergraduate Maths Scholarships at University of Edinburgh

Eligible candidates should complete an online scholarship application.

  • So as to gain entree to the scholarship application system candidates must have applied for admission to the University of Edinburgh.  Please be informed that, following the submission of an application for admission, it can take up to five working days for all system checks to be completed and for access to be granted.
  • The online scholarship application form is situated in EUCLID and can be evaluated through MyEd our web based information portal at https://www.myed.ed.ac.uk
  • Applicants will need their University User Name and password when logging in to MyEd,. If any applicant require assistance, please go to http://www.ed.ac.uk/student-systems/support-guidance

GOODLUCK as you apply for Edinburgh Global Undergraduate Maths Scholarships at University of Edinburgh.

Visit scholarship webpage for Details on Edinburgh Global Undergraduate Maths Scholarships at University of Edinburgh.

The Significant Difference Between Volume and Capacity

The Significant Difference Between Volume and Capacity: Within the field of science, volume and capacity are usually mistaken and used correspondingly but they are actually different. Volume simply refers to the amount of three-dimensional space that it occupies while capacity refers to the maximum limits measured in liters.

So whenever volume and capacity are used, it typically involves an object and a certain amount of substance it consists of which is the primary reason why the terms are presumed to be the same. But in this article, we will show you the significant difference between volume and capacity.

Hence, the volume of a substance is the total amount of space that it covers, that is when we measure the space region taken up by a solid object it is called as volume. On the contrary, Capacity implies the quantity of something that a container holds. In short, capacity is the container’s volume.

What is the Meaning of Volume?

In spite of everything of the state of matter involved like solid, liquid or gas, and if or not there is actually an object within the container, the volume only refers to the three-dimensional space an object employed by itself.

In other words, volume simply means the three-dimensional size of the object. It is also determined as the product of the cross-sectional area and height of an object. Volume is generally measured in terms of cubic centimeters or cubic meters.

At times, the volume of a specific container is also seen as its capacity, as well. In the following figure, the volume of the cylinder is equal to the product of cross-sectional area A and height h; i.e V=A×h.

However, fluid displacement is a different way to determine the volume of solids or gas. Fluid displacement also involves absorbing the object in a fluid. The volume of the object will then displace the fluid. Such displacement of the fluid can then be measured. In this case, it will be expressed in liters, milliliters, fluid ounces, or cups.

The volume of fluids, or the quantity of small loose objects such as grains of rice, can also be measured by pouring them into a measuring tool such as a measuring cup

What is the Meaning of Capacity?

Capacity simply refers to the potential amount of substance that a container is able to hold or absorb. It may also have similarities in ideas with volume, but it is still separable.

It also concentrates more on how much a solid, liquid or gas can fit in a container and frequently means the maximum amount that one can bear. Capacity is typically measured in terms of liters, milliliters, pound, gallons, and the like. 

One way we can show the concept is that capacity is the ability of a container to hold two cups of rice, while that same container may have a volume of 5 cubic centimeters which refers to the amount of space that the container itself actually occupies.

The Significant Difference Between Volume and Capacity

1. Volume is the amount of space which is taken up by an object, whereas capacity is the measure of an object’s ability to hold a substance, like a solid, a liquid or a gas. 

2. Capacity is also the maximum limit which is measured in liters.

3. The Volume is measured in cubic units, whereas capacity can be measured in almost every other unit.

4. Volume is also calculated by multiplying the length, width, and height of an object, whereas the measurement for capacity is pitched more towards cc or ml.

Major Difference Between Catholic and Baptist

Major Difference between Catholic and Baptist: There are many errors and confusions when it comes to religious groups as each church has its sets of beliefs and tenets. In this article, we will show you the major difference between Catholic and Baptist.

Catholics believe that Christ has placed the Church in authority over Christians on earth, whereas Baptists believe that Christ has placed the Bible in authority over Christians on earth.

Catholics acknowledge the authority of the bishops over the Church -the Pope is the head of the bishops while Baptists believe in the authority of the Bible, and it alone. The only authority for Baptist is the Bible.

About the Catholic Church

Catholic Church is the body of churches that are in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, which involves the Roman Catholic Church and 22 Eastern Catholic Churches. While the Roman Catholic Church traces its history to Jesus Christ and the Apostles. 

Over the course of centuries, it raised a highly advanced theology and a detailed organizational structure headed by the papacy, the oldest continuing absolute monarchy in the world.

The number of Roman Catholics in the world is higher than that of nearly all other religious traditions. However, there are more Roman Catholics than all other Christians combined and more Roman Catholics than all Hindus or Buddhists. Although, there are lot of Muslims compared to Roman Catholics, the number of Roman Catholics is higher than that of the individual traditions of Shiʿi and Sunni Islam.

About the Baptist Church

Baptists are those who consist of a group of Evangelical Christian churches and denominations. However, the earliest record of a ‘Baptist’ church was in 1609 in Amsterdam, with a pastor named John Smyth, who is an English Separatist.

The first Baptist congregation was founded in North America then grew in both the South and New England. Their church spread to every continent as recommended by Baptist missionaries. The Baptist Church has like 105 million followers worldwide.

Their Baptist belief is concentrated on faith in Jesus Christ alone as the key to salvation. The term ‘baptist’ originates from the Greek word ‘baptidzo’, which simply means “to dip or submerge.” They also believe in the doctrine that baptism is only for those who believe in Jesus Christ and can also express their belief.

The act of baptism is done by completely absorbing the body in water. The Baptist beliefs state that since infants still lack the ability to understand and express their belief, baptism is not for them. Baptism is only for adults or children who are able to declare their faith. Moreover, Baptists believe that baptism does not play any part in salvation. Baptists pray only to Jesus and they do not believe in torture.

Major Difference Between Catholic and Baptist

1. The Roman Catholic was founded in 33 A.D by St. Peter Following the death of Christ 

2. Roman Catholic is actually the biggest church known to exist today, compared to the smaller Baptist Church.

3. The main focus of the Baptist Church is salvation through faith in God alone, while the Catholics believe in the same plus the belief in the Holy sacraments as the way to salvation.

4. Baptists believe in adult baptism, or at least to someone who already knows how to believe while Catholics believe in infant baptism.

5. Burning of incense in a thurible that moves from a chain is a famous Roman Catholics rite not practiced by Baptists.

6. Catholics practice the tradition of Lent in the weeks leading up to Easter whereas the Baptist doesn’t.

7. The Pope is the biggest position that can be held in the Catholic Church while the Baptist Church has no formal structure, unlike the Roman Catholic Church.

8. Catholics also believe in the existence of purgation while the Baptists believe in praying to Jesus Christ alone.

The Major Difference Between Google And Google Chrome

The Major Difference Between Google And Google Chrome: Google is a search engine that lets people find information on the web. It is the name of the company behind Google Maps, Google Chrome, Gmail, Google Drive, AdWords Express, Google AdSense, etc. In this article, we will show you the major difference between Google and Google Chrome.

Google Chrome is an internet browser which is developed by Google. It was first launched in 2008 for Microsoft Windows and it is presently the default browser built into Android OS.

What is Google?

Google is one of the biggest names that come to mind when Tech comes to mind. The surprising issue about it is that it was not even a phrase just some years before now nevertheless now has been entered all through the dictionaries as a result of excessive utilization.

It is also the act of in search of particulars about one factor on the net. Most of the searches that happen on the net are as a result of search engines often called Google which is probably going to be some of the famous if not basically the most famous ones on the web.

Google is an American agency that was primarily based in 1998 by two people Larry and Sergey who had been Doctorate faculty college students with the aim of producing a spot where people would possibly get particulars about plenty of points without having to be taught books. It was actually an evaluation problem by faculty college students and now has to turn into an impartial agency.

The method of using this can be very simple. People barely ought to sort the take care of on the web, and then enter the merchandise or the phrases they want to get particulars about. Once that’s done, Google reveals associated pages and internet sites which embody data regarding the topic which people want to search.

What is Google Chrome?

Google Chrome is currently one of the most used web browsers in the world which have been founded by Google. It is also a fast and secure place where people can open different websites and manage their content on the internet.

People can save pages that they want to open at a later time while using different accounts such as Facebook from the place. Google Chrome was founded in 2008 for Windows but later on, is now available on other networks such as iOs, Android, Linux and Mac.

The beautiful thing about this product is that there are no charges to be paid by people who want to use it. All Google related products can also be integrated with the browser. The process of using it is very easy.

People only have to enter the web address of the site they want to visit in the bar and then wait for the page to load and they will reach their destination. Another characteristic of this is that people can use the bar as their search engine tab, whatever information is entered in the tab, it will open the search results in Google.

The only disadvantage of this is that it consumes a lot of battery for people who are using it but then it loads at a faster speed and provides a lot more options if compared with other related browsers. Although Google Chrome came in the market at a later time, as of today it has 63% of the share in the market, making it a global success in just less than ten years.

The Major Difference Between Google And Google Chrome

  • Google is a corporation that makes a totally different merchandise that helps people reveal the information they need on the net while Google Chrome is one of their merchandise which help people reveal the information in a secure technique.
  • Google tends to be termed as a search engine that is most well-known amongst its opponents while Google Chrome is a web browser that is probably the most glorious amongst its opponents.
  • In 1998, Google was based as an evaluation problem while Google Chrome was established by Google in 2007 with the aim of competing with totally different browsers.
  • The original function of Google embraces Google Chrome, Gmail, Google Maps, and Google Drive while the first merchandise of Google Chrome embraces Chromecast, Chromebook, and Chromebit.
  • Google also has a market share of 64% amongst its space while Google Chrome has a market share of 63% in its space.
  • Google helps people reveal relative data with the help of key phrases while Google Chrome lets people uncover associated data-based totally on the web and take care of them.
  • Google gives selections similar to paperwork, texts, photos and data for the entered time interval while Google Chrome redirects to the site at a fast tempo.

Important Difference Between Morals and Values

Important Difference Between Morals and Values: Morals and values are basic aspects that make up and largely determine the behavior of every individual. The difference between morals and values are very devious. Understanding the difference between them will need a wide examination of what they actually mean. In this article, we will show you the important difference between morals and values.

Values guide an organization’s or individual’s behavior as the collective formations of what is considered bad, undesirable, and improper or good, desirable, and proper in a culture. Morals are beliefs and principles concerning right and wrong behavior.

What are values?

Values are the grounds of a person’s ability to judge between right and wrong. It includes a deep-rooted system of beliefs. They have inherent worth but are not universally accepted. This system also allows each individual to determine what should and shouldn’t be.

It may be specific such as honoring one’s parents or owning a home or they may be more general, such as health, democracy and love. ‘One good turn deserves another’, ‘truth prevails’ ‘learning is good as ends itself’ are few examples of general values.

Features of Values:

  • Values are practical, and valuation needs not just techniques but also an understanding of the strategic context.
  • These can provide standards of morality and competence and can also go beyond certain situations or persons.
  • Personal values can also be influenced by tradition, culture, and a combination of external and internal factors.
  • These are more leading to the core of a person and are relatively permanent.
  • Most of our central values are learned early in life from family, friends, mass print, neighborhood school, visual media and other sources within the society.
  • They also contain a judgmental element in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable.
  • Values can vary from culture to culture and even person to person.
  • Values also play an important role in the combination and fulfillment of man’s basic impulses and desire stably and frequently appropriate for his living.
  • They are common experiences in social action made up of both individual and social responses and attitudes.
  • Values also build up societies, integrate social relations.

What are morals?

From the reading of bedtime stories to children’s books to advanced fables, we get very familiar with the phrase, ‘And the moral of the story is…’ However, that’s not exactly the type of moral we’re actually talking about here, but it does follow a similar concept.

A moral is a shared ideal that is certain to a community or to a group as a whole. In general, it could be as basic as being honest, even when it’s difficult or not being jealous of others. But, a moral can also be a much more difficult idea. These are emotionally similar to deciding right or wrong.

Morals also have high social value and acceptance than values, hence a person is judged more for his moral character than the values. But, one is said to be immoral for a person without morals but no such term is there for a person without values.

Important Difference Between Morals and Values

1. Values are the concepts that shape a moral code, the rules by which a person behaves.

2. Morals are commonly taught by society to the individual while values come from within.

3. Morals also act as a motivation for leading a good life whereas values can be called an intuition.

4. Values are personal fundamental beliefs or concepts while morals are mostly related to one’s religion, business or politics

5. Morals are deep-seated while values keep on changing with time and needs.

6. Moral is also a motivation or a key for leading a good life in the right direction.

7. A person’s values won’t always be good, it could be bad.

8. Morals are also like commandments set by the elders and to be followed by the descendants.

University of Groningen Talent Grants in Netherlands 2021/2022

Good news! University of Groningen Talent Grants is presently open. The academic institution is offering the Talent Grants for one-year Master’s program Theology & Religious Studies

Application Deadline: 1st March 2021

Eligible Countries: International

To be taken at (country): The Netherlands

Area of Study: Religion, Conflict and Globalization MA, Religion and Pluralism MA, Religion and Cultural Heritage MA, Religion, Health and Wellbeing MA

Type: Master (MSc/MA/LL.M.), Master program

Eligibility for University of Groningen Talent Grants

The Talent Grant is sponsored by the Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies. The grant is meant for international scholars from OUTSIDE the European Economic Area (EEA) who want to do their Master’s in Theology and Religious Studies. The EEA consists of the EU nations and Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.

Scholars from nations outside the EU/EEA who have been enrolled to one of the tracks of the Master’s programme in Theology & Religious Studies:

  1. MA Religion and Pluralism: Ancient & Modern;
  2. MA Religion, Conflict and Globalization;
  3. MA Religion and Cultural Heritage;
  4. MA Religion, Health and Wellbeing.

Applicants should:

  1. Possess a non-EU/EEA passport and will not be qualified for support under the Dutch system of study grants and loans.
  2. Have gotten conditional admission to one of the three MA tracks in Theology and Religious Studies;
  3. Get outstanding academic performance and grades during their bachelor/ undergraduate studies;
  4. Not have already gotten a master’s degree from an academic institution in the Netherlands;
  5. Have excellent English language proficiency, based on the admission prerequisites of the program;
  6. Be accessible for the whole time of the program and be able to take part in the whole program;
  7. Confirm in writing their agreement with that of the grant when granted with the Talent Grant.

University of Groningen Talent Grants Selection Criteria

A committee will review the applications. Students are nominated on the grounds of academic excellence (i.e. results obtained in study program, academic paper, general evaluation of prior education etc.) and of the candidates’ motivational statements. Conclusions are made in March (for the September intake). Applicants will be notified eventually on 15 May.

Number of Awards: Not specified

Benefits of University of Groningen Talent Grants

The benefit is € 5.000 worth of award, and is given for a one year Master’s degree program in Theology and Religious Studies

Eligible nations:  Albania, Virgin Islands of the United States, Afghanistan, American Samoa, Angola, Anguilla, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Autonomous Palestinian Territories, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Bouvet Island, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Congo (Dem Rep.), Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Philippines, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Yemen, Jordan, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Christmas Island, Kyrgyzstan, Kiribati, Kuwait, Kosovo, Laos, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lebanon, Macau, Macedonia, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Morocco, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Maldives, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Montserrat, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Nicaragua, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, North Korea, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Oman, East Timor, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Réunion, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, Saint Helena, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Chad, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, United Arab Emirates, United States, Vietnam, Wallis and Futuna, Belarus, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, South Korea, Congo (Rep.), Côte d’Ivoire, Kyrgyz Republic, Madagascar, Micronesia (Federated States), South Sudan, Sudan (Rep.), Svalbard and Jan Mayen, Timor-Leste, West Bank and Gaza Strip

How to Apply for University of Groningen Talent Grants

Applicants should f ill in the application form and add the documents below to apply for University of Groningen Talent Grants:

  1. Duplicate of your University of Groningen (conditional) admission letter to the MA Theology and Religious Studies programme from the Admission Board;
  2. Letter of Recommendation by a PhD or Professor from your current/last degree programme;
  3. Transcript of Records from your present/last degree programme;
  4. Letter of motivation (in Word) of a maximum of 500 words, in which you specify why you believe you should be considered for this grant;
  5. Curriculum Vitae.

Please send the form and documents to [email protected]

Visit Programme Webpage for Details on University of Groningen Talent Grants.

Good luck as you apply for University of Groningen Talent Grants.

MIT-Zaragoza African Supply Chain Masters Scholarships in Spain 2021

Good news! MIT-Zaragoza African Supply Chain Masters Scholarships is presently open. The program offers numerous scholarship awards yearly for scholars of the MIT-Zaragoza Master of Engineering in Logistics and Supply Chain Management (ZLOG) program. 

Deadline of Application: 15th April, 2021

Eligible Countries: African countries

Program Location: Spain

About the Award: Zaragoza Logistics Center and the MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program will grant scholarships in the academic session 2019- 2020 for applicants from African countries who can display an outstanding talent for leadership and professional success within the field of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.

From this scholarship award, ZLC aims to attract exceptional future leaders who can add a significant contribution to filling the capacity gap in Africa for well-trained supply chain and logistics professionals.

Type: Masters

Eligibility for MIT-Zaragoza African Supply Chain Masters Scholarships

MIT-Zaragoza African Supply Chain Masters Scholarships are granted only to scholars who have been enrolled to the MIT-Zaragoza Master of Engineering in Logistics and Supply Chain Management (ZLOG) program via the ZLC‘s standard admissions process.

The candidates should show outstanding academic attainment and unique personal achievement along with an interest in embarking a career in SCM and Logistics. In addition, to be qualified, applicants must fulfill with the following criteria:

  • African citizenship.
  • Endorsed entrance to the MIT-Zaragoza Master of Engineering in Logistics and Supply Chain Management (ZLOG) program.
  • Accomplishment of a four year undergraduate degree program equivalent to a Bachelor’s Degree.
  • Professional excellence with a foundation or experience in Logistics and Supply Chain Management, or outstanding academic success.
  • Competitive GRE or GMAT scores. Exclusions may be given to persons who have demonstrated solid professional and/or academic success in finishing a college degree – as well as some quantitative training and evidence of innovative verbal and written skill in the English language.
  • Eloquence in English, competitive IELTS or TOEFL score – exclusions may be given to persons who have proven evidence of advanced verbal and written proficiency in the English language. In addition, the ability to speak French is an advantage.

MIT-Zaragoza African Supply Chain Masters Scholarships Selection Criteria

The selection criteria for the ZLOG scholarships are strong and very competitive. The applicant will be selected on the grounds of the criteria below:

  • Preference will be given to applicants with foundation or work experience in Logistics and Supply Chain Management (25%)
  • Financial need (20%)
  • Academic excellence as based on academic records (20%)
  • Essay detailing why the applicant should be given the scholarship (to be filled out in the Application Form) (20%)
  • Recognized initiative and pursuit for external funding opportunities (contacted the ZLC Financial Aid Office, individual search, other applications for scholarships and/or bank loans, etc. (10%)
  • Proposal quality: presentation, writing, punctuality in the application, etc. (5%) Candidates will be informed by e-mail of the result. The scholarship receiver will get an award letter.

Benefits of MIT-Zaragoza African Supply Chain Masters Scholarships

  • 25%, 50%
  • ZLC will award some scholarships which will help in reduction of tuition for the MIT-Zaragoza Master of Engineering in Logistics and Supply Chain Management (ZLOG) program, to the tune of 25% or50%.
  • The reduction will rest on on the candidate’s academic accomplishments and characteristic personal success in addition to an interest in pursuing a career in Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
  • The grant will not encompass other costs such as the administrative dues, accommodation or travel costs to Zaragoza or to Boston for the international exchange.

Note: Tuition does not fund administrative cost (€300), books, accommodation or travel costs to Zaragoza or to Boston for the international exchange. Living expenses differ, contingent on standard of living and whether scholars wish to live alone, with roommates or with a family. The rate of living in Zaragoza is lower than in much of Europe. Currently, a budget of around €400-€600 monthly is the norm for single occupant.

MIT-Zaragoza African Supply Chain Masters Scholarships – How to Apply

Download application on MIT-Zaragoza African Supply Chain Masters Scholarships

Visit Scholarship Webpage for details on MIT-Zaragoza African Supply Chain Masters Scholarships.

Good luck!

Chinese Government Scholarship at Wuhan University in China 2021

Good news! Chinese Government Scholarship at Wuhan University is a complete scholarship award established by Ministry of Education to support Chinese universities to attract exceptional foreign scholars from African Nations for six month general studies in China. Wuhan University is one of the prominent universities chosen to embark on this program to recruit scholars.

The Institution of higher education dates back to Ziqiang Institute, which was established in 1893 by Zhang Zhidong, governor of Hubei and Hunan Provinces in late Qing Dynasty after the Qing Government permitted his memorial to the throne. Far along, its name altered for several times before it was called National Wuhan University in July 1928. By 1946, the academic institution had six colleges, i.e., the colleges of liberal arts, sciences, engineering, law, agriculture and medicine. The academic institution had a superb innovative tradition and enjoyed a very high academic reputation.

At the moment, Wuhan University has 34 schools in 6 faculties and 3 A-Level Grade Ⅲ affiliated hospitals, covering 12 fields, namely philosophy, Economics, Law, Education, Literature, History, Sciences, Engineering, Management and Art, etc.

The Institution of higher education now has more than 50,000 scholars, as well as 29738 undergraduates, 26073 graduates and 2537 international students. The teaching staff consists of over 3,700 teachers, as well as 2,700 or so professors and associate professors, 11 academicians of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 10 renowned senior scholars of arts and social sciences.

Application Deadline: 31st March 2021

Eligible Countries: African countries

Location: China

Field(s) of Study: The grant only supports full-time graduate scholars. It supports master’s scholars for barely three years or doctoral scholars for barely four years. Length of the scholarship, which covers major study and Chinese language/preparatory stud, is as stated in the Admission Letter. The followings are majors accessible.

Type: Masters, PhD

Eligibility for Chinese Government Scholarship at Wuhan University

1. Candidates with African nations’ nationalities and in good health.

2. Candidates who apply for a master degree should be below 35 years old and hold a BSc. Candidates who apply for a Ph.D. degree should be below 40 years old and hold a MSc.

3. Candidates for English-medium programs should provide score report of English Language test. TOEFL necessitates 80, IELTS requires 5.5. Candidates who did English-medium program in former school but could not provide the above mentioned standard English test result should provide extra supporting documents issued by former school and do added oral or written English test organized by Wuhan University.

Candidates from English-speaking nation where English is the official language could be exempted from providing the above English proficiency certificate.

4. Candidates applying for Chinese-medium programs should provide minimum HSK level 4 certificate (Chinese Proficiency Test). Candidates who exceled HSK level 5 or above can head straight to the major study, those who have not achieved HSK level 5 can apply for one-year Chinese language training courses, and then head to the degree study after meeting the prerequisite.

Individuals that their native language is Chinese or able to provide proof of studying at a prior institution where the teaching language is Chinese, can apply for HSK test waiver after the approval of Wuhan University.

5. Candidates who do not get other scholarship for fresh students.

Number of Awards: Not specified

Benefits of Chinese Government Scholarship at Wuhan University

  • Tuition waiver;
  • Accommodation(700RMB/per month);
  • Living stipend: ( 3000RMB/per month);
  • Comprehensive medical insurance.

Duration of Award:

  • Masters: 3 years
  • PhD: 4 years

Chinese Government Scholarship at Wuhan University – How to Apply

  • Go over all application prerequisites in the Chinese Government Scholarship at Wuhan University Award Webpage.
  • Wish you luck while you apply for Chinese Government Scholarship at Wuhan University

Chinese Government Scholarship at Wuhan University is a complete scholarship award established by Ministry of Education to support Chinese universities to attract exceptional foreign scholars from African Nations for six month general studies in China. Wuhan University is one of the prominent universities chosen to embark on this program to recruit scholars.

Visit Award Webpage for Details on Chinese Government Scholarship at Wuhan University.

Indian Government Scholarships by Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) for African Students in India 2021/2022

Good news! Indian Government Scholarships by Indian Council for Cultural Relations is offering up to 900 scholarships for African scholars to embark on undergraduate, postgraduate and higher courses program at Institutions/Universities in India.

Application Deadline: 28th February 2021

Duration: Indian Government Scholarships by Indian Council for Cultural Relations is Offered Annually.

The ICCR – Indian Council for Cultural Relations – implements Indian Government Scholarships by Indian Council for Cultural Relations on behalf of the Ministry of External Affairs.

Type: undergraduate, post-graduate

Eligibility for Indian Government Scholarships by Indian Council for Cultural Relations

  • Scholars applying for doctoral/ post-doctoral program should include a synopsis of the projected area of research.
  • Scholars aiming to study performing arts should, if possible, enclose video/ audio cassettes of their recorded performances.
  • Applicants must have adequate knowledge of English.
  • ICCR will not acknowledge submissions which are sent to ICCR directly by the students or which are sent by local Embassies/High Commissions in New Delhi.
  • Precedence will be given to scholars who have never studied in India before.
  • No submission will be accepted for admission to courses in MBBS/MD or Dentistry/Nursing.
  • Applicants should know that Indian universities/educational institution are independent and henceforth have their own eligibility standards which have to be fulfilled.
  • Scholar must carry a proper visa. Students should make certain that they get the right visa from the Indian Embassy/High Commission. Government of India instruction request that if a an individual arrives without appropriate visa and his/her actual admission at the University/Institute does not matter, he/she will be deported to his/her nation.
  • Preceding parting from India the individuals should seek out for a comprehensive briefing from the Indian Diplomatic Mission in their nation about living conditions in India/the details of scholarship/the type and period of the course to which he/she is admitted. Scholars have to notify the Indian Embassy/High Commission of their travel plans well in advance so that ICCR can make reception and other arrangements for them.
  • Be advised to come along with some money to meet incidental expenditures on arrival in India.
  • Those who are given award should come along with all documents relating to their qualification in original for verification by the respective college/university at the time of admission.

Number of Scholarships: 900

Benefits of Indian Government Scholarships by Indian Council for Cultural Relations

(Figure is in Indian currency)

  • Accommodation stipend (monthly)
  • 5,500 for Undergraduate, Postgraduate 6,000 M.Phil / Ph.D 7,000, Post-doctoral Fellow-7,500
  • House Rent Allowance (month)
  • Grade one metropolises (5,000) and In other metropolises (4,500)
  • Contingent Grant (yearly)
  • Postgraduate (7,000) M/Phil / Ph.D and M.Tech./ME-12,500, Undergraduate(5,000), Postdoctoral studies (15,500), Tuition Fee/Other Compulsory Fee-As per actual (excluding refundable amount) –Thesis and dissertation Expenses (Once in entire duration of course)
  • 10,000 (D Scholar) and for BBA/BCA/MBA/MCA/M.Tech and other course required submission of Project (7.000)
  • Medical Benefits
  • During the program scholars are supposed to get treatment only at medical centre or dispensary attached to universities / Institutes where they enrolled or in the nearest Government hospital.

Duration of Scholarship: For the period of study

Check Official Website for Eligible African Countries

To be taken at (country): India

How to Apply for Indian Government Scholarships by Indian Council for Cultural Relations

  • Make sure to read the instructions before filling out the application form.
  • Make certain also to read the financial terms and conditions.
  • Comprehensive procedures on the process of applying for ICCR Scholarships online on the A2A Portal and procedure and norms governing the same is given on the www.a2ascholarships.iccr.gov.in
  • Scholars have to read instructions and apply through the same website.

Indian Government Scholarships by Indian Council for Cultural Relations is offering up to 900 scholarships for African scholars to embark on undergraduate, postgraduate and higher courses program at Institutions/Universities in India.

Visit Scholarship webpage for details on Indian Government Scholarships by Indian Council for Cultural Relations.

Tony Elumelu Foundation Entrepreneurship Program (TEEP) Across Africa in 2021

Good news! Tony Elumelu Foundation Entrepreneurship Program is presently on. The foremost philanthropy in Africa, Tony Elumelu Foundation (TEF) is committed to empowering African entrepreneurs, opens applications on its TEFConnect digital platform (www.tefconnect.com) today, January 1, 2021.

Application Deadline: 31st March 2021

This year’s mandate prioritizes the economic recovery of small and medium scale initiatives (SMEs) and young African entrepreneurs, following the Covid-19 disruption to economic activities.

To face the unique trials arising from the pandemic, help millions out of poverty and generate viable employment all over the continent, the Foundation’s Entrepreneurship Program will enable 1,000 young African entrepreneurs, picked from the 2020 cohort.  The Foundation will also open applications to an added 2,400 young entrepreneurs in 2021, in association with global partners.

The Tony Elumelu Foundation, which celebrated ten years of its influence in 2020, is enabling a novel generation of African entrepreneurs, via the TEF Entrepreneurship Program.  Prosperous applicants get a world-class business training, mentorship, non-refundable seed capital up to $5,000, and global networking opportunities.  The Program is open to entrepreneurs across Africa, both fresh start-ups and existing young businesses, operating in any sector.

Type: Entrepreneurship

Eligibility for Tony Elumelu Foundation Entrepreneurship Program

Tony Elumelu Foundation Entrepreneurship Program recognizes exceptional African entrepreneurs who have start-ups or business ideas with the prospects to grow.

Eligible Countries: Countries in Africa

Number of Awards: 2,400 

Benefits of Tony Elumelu Foundation Entrepreneurship Program

The training has been structured to educate and you in starting or growing your business to overcome the challenges faced by entrepreneurs across the African continentThe curriculum makes emphases on practical, iterative learning that is beneficial even long after the training period.  

What to Except from the Program

The TEF Entrepreneurship Program will be delivered in different stages as listed below: 

  • Application Stage 
  • Training &Mentorship Stage 
  • Business Plan Submission Stage 
  • Pitching Stage 
  • Seed Capital Stage 


This will occur from the January 1 to March 31. Once applications are closed, qualified candidates will be placed in the suitable training path as follows: 


This implies that the individual do not have the skillset required to begin a business. Candidates will go through the general training on TEFConnect. Candidates will, however, not be qualified for mentorship or seed capital. 


This implies that candidate is a starter giving the business start-up profiling. Candidates will go through the beginner training modules and will have entree to world class mentors during the program.  


This implies that candidates have been profiled to be an intermediate entrepreneur. Candidates have a good prospect to be a successful entrepreneur. Candidates will go through the Intermediate training modules and will have entree to world class mentors during the program.  


This implies that candidates are identified to be natural or a seasoned entrepreneur. Candidates will go through the Advanced training modules and will have access to world class mentors during the program.  


Once selected and placed in the right training path, candidate will be qualified to participate in rigorous business training and mentoring sessions. There will be multiple choice questions to track candidates’’ performances. Candidates will attend a virtual orientation program to learn more about the procedure, and timelines with resources available will be shared to you to succeed. The qualified entrepreneurs will be given access to join the peer-to-peer support groups. 

  • Qualified entrepreneurs will be expected to finish the business training, answer the quiz at each end of each module. 
  • The shortlisted candidates after the training will be given the opportunity to develop a BUSINESS PLAN  


This template will help partakers create a first draft of their business plan. Compose a business plan. After the BUSINESS TRAINING & BUSINESS PLAN SUBMISSION, only successful applicants (who complete the MCQs and score above cut off mark and submit a business plan) would be qualified to move on to the next stage: the PITCHING COMPETITION. 


This is an opportunity to showcase your business knowledge and convince the judge about the viability of your business. At the pitching stage, entrepreneurs will present their ideas before a panel of judges. Only the successful applicants from the pitching competition will get seed capital funding and access to the Alumni network to support their business ambitions. 

If you successfully finished all essential training prerequisite and submitted a business plan, but was unsuccessful after the pitching competition, candidate will get a training completion certificate and can reapply following year. All qualified entrepreneurs must go through this stage to be eligible for SEED CAPITAL. 


All entrepreneurs who have successfully attained all the above stages will be mandated to open business accounts and seed capital will flow into these accounts created. An entrepreneur who is qualified to get seed funding will be given a CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION AND ACHIEVEMENT from the Foundation.

Tony Elumelu Foundation Entrepreneurship Program – How to Apply

Apply here for Tony Elumelu Foundation Entrepreneurship Program.

  • It is imperative to go through all application prerequisite in the Award Webpage (see Link below) before applying.
  • GOODLUCK as you apply for Tony Elumelu Foundation Entrepreneurship Program

Visit Award Webpage for Details on Tony Elumelu Foundation Entrepreneurship Program.

Important Information: Accomplishment of the training program is a firm condition to moving progressing to the submission and evaluation of your business plan, partaking in the pitching competition, and receipt of seed capital.

The Major Difference Between Flour and Cornstarch

The Major Difference Between Flour and Cornstarch: Flour is made by grinding corn kernels into a fine powder while cornstarch has gone through more refining and addition of important nutrients. The powders are both thickeners made from corn. Flour is a hard substance that has lots of protein, fat, and even a bit of sugar, while cornstarch is made from pure starch. In this article, we will show you the major difference between flour and cornstarch.

Flour and Cornstarch

In baking and cooking, flour and cornstarch are two of the most important ingredients in cookery. Flour and cornstarch are starches, and both are used relatively as thickening agents in different types of sauces in various cuisines.

Cornstarch is a starch made from corn. It is a white powder flour that is processed from the white heart of the corn, also known as endosperm. Another name for cornstarch is corn flour. On the contrary, flour is made from wheat, and it is the traditional thickening agent.

Starch is also a pure starch compared to flour. The reason is because flour contains gluten. The lack of gluten in cornstarch makes it more logical in thickening. Cornstarch has twice the thickening power of starch. The presence of gluten in flour makes it less essential.

But since the cornstarch has twice the thickening power compared to flour, the amount of cornstarch used is typically half of that of flour in a given recipe. Another good advantage of cornstarch over flour is that cornstarch doesn’t create lumps, while lumps are clear when using flour.

The cornstarch mixture doesn’t need any flavor to be added to the base, and it doesn’t mask any flavor or taste. As a mixture, the cornstarch mix blends more comfortably compared to the flour combination. The mix also doesn’t engross liquid until it cooks.

Cornstarch is a thickening power that produces an obvious and light shine or gloss to the sauce, while the flour mixture will add a white, blurred, and cloudy appearance. The cornstarch mixture is also used for dairy-based sauces like gravies and custards, while the flour mixture is used in white or cream soups. The flour mixture can also be used as a roux where the fat and flour are combined.

Another major difference between the cornstarch mixture and the cornflour mixture is the temperature of the water. Starch is usually mixed with cold water because the starch will get lumpy if hot water is added. In dissimilarity, flour is blended with hot water.

The two mixtures can be added to the sauce base or soup after adding the dry and wet ingredients. It is also essential to note that the cornstarch mixture doesn’t mix well with any kind of acid in liquid form.

However, both mixtures can be subject to thinning so when this happens, a couple of factors come into play. These mixtures might have different amounts of liquid and the dry ingredient (whether it is cornstarch or flour).

Typically, the amount of the liquid is smaller compared to that of dry starch. This can be solved by adding more hot or cold water, depending on the type of thickening agent. Another factor might also be surplus of other ingredients like fat, sugar, and acid. Immoderate stirring and freezing the mixture can also contribute to its thinning.

The Major Difference Between Flour and Cornstarch

1. Cornstarch and corn-flour are thickening agents used for soups and sauces.

2. The starch mixture produces a gloss or shine, whereas, the flour blend leaves a blurred and cloudy look.

3. The starch mixture has the primary of having twice the thickening power compared to flour. The presence of gluten in flour makes it less essential.

4. Cornstarch is also added to cold water, while the flour is mixed with hot water.

5. Starch is usually made from corn, while corn flour is usually made from wheat.

The Major Difference Between JPG and PNG

The Major Difference Between JPG and PNG: At physical value, a single image shown in both JPG and PNG formats might seem similar, but when placed under detailed examination, and the data is properly examined, there is quite a difference between the two. So in this article, we will show you the major difference between JPG and PNG.

There is no format certainly better than the other, as under various circumstances both formats satisfy the needs for image quality, file size, and a lot more other interests. It is important to note that the two formats have their unique downsides which will be outlined in this article.

Image Formats

When talking about images, there are a number of formats to choose from while saving to a digital copy. Each format has its strengths and weaknesses, and choosing the right format can be of great help. However, two of these formats are JPG and PNG.

The major difference between JPG and PNG is the compression algorithms that they use. JPG uses a lossy compression algorithm that abandons some of the image information in order to minimize the size of the file. Whereas, PNG also uses a lossless algorithm that keeps all the information.

So with PNG, the quality of the image will not change, but the size of the file will typically be larger. On the contrary, JPG images can be made very small, but the quality can reduce very quickly from a specific point.


JPEG is a type of file which is expanded by the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) to be a standard for professional photographers. But like the method ZIP files use to find wordiness in files to compress data, JPGs compress image data by reducing the sections of images to blocks of pixels or ‘tiles.’

JPEG is also the quality compressed format in digital photography and online image sharing due to its careful balance of file size and image quality. The correct ratio varies depending on the program and settings used. While the typical JPEG image has a 10:1 compression ratio.

JPEG compression also has the bad side effect of being permanent.  But, as the technology for the file was created for keeping large photographic image files in surprisingly small spaces, and not for photo editing.

JPGs have also become the de facto standard image of the internet because they can be compressed so much. An original JPG can be compressed at a ratio of anywhere from 2:1 to as high as 100:1, depending on your settings.

Especially back in the days of dial-up internet, JPGs were the only feasible way to send image information.


PNG stands for Portable Network Graphics. It is a lossless file format designed as a more open alternative to Graphics Interchange Format (GIF). PNG was also developed as an open alternative to GIF, which used the proprietary LZW compression algorithm discussed earlier.

It is an excellent file type for internet graphics, as it supports clarity in browsers with an elegance that GIF does not have. You should note how the transparent color changes and blends with the background. This is typically one image that is on four different background colors.

PNG also supports 8-bit color like GIF, but supports 24-bit color RGB, like JPG does. They are also non-lossy files, compressing photographic images without mortifying image quality. PNG is likely the largest of the three file types and isn’t supported by some (usually older) browsers.

Additionally to being a good format for clarity, the non-lossy nature of 24-bit PNG is perfect for screenshot software, allowing pixel for pixel transcription of your desktop environment.

The Major Difference Between JPEG and PNG

  • In general, JPG is a lossy format while PNG is a lossless format.
  • JPG is also better for photographs but PNG is better for created images.
  • JPG is in support of the embedding of EXIF data while PNG does not. 
  • PNG also supports transparency while JPG does not.

The Major Difference Between Pastor and Reverend

The Major Difference Between a Pastor and a Reverend: For the majority of people, religion is a very important part of life. In between different religious circles, the names attached to spiritual leaders are important and of great significance. And religious titles like ‘Pastor’ and ‘reverend’ have been used correspondingly.

Majority of people within the Christian community very frequently interchange these two religious titles, as they seem to be equivalent. This article is aimed at highlighting the distinctions between the two religious titles. Hence we will show you the major difference between a Pastor and a Reverend.

Who is a Pastor or Reverend?

Pastors and Reverends are different terms for religious leaders just as elders, deacons, evangelists, prophets, teachers, priests, popes, etc. However, each religious position displays the roles handled by these church leaders. Sometimes, the pastor can also be addressed as a reverend. The main title used for the position is different from church to church and denomination to denomination.

However, the title of the pastor comes from the word itself meaning ‘shepherd.’ This is a metaphor that is found in the Bible when it is said that God leads a flock of sheep, he was referring to his Christian followers. The word ‘pastor’ is also used correspondingly here as it means that the pastor is shepherding his flock of churchgoers.

But, both a pastor and a reverend may be powerful to the church. As leaders, they may also act as teachers, and they may be given the opportunities to deliver Sunday sermons and give studies to children and adults on the different teachings of the Bible.

Also, these church leaders are expected to make themselves as presentable as possible as a role model to the community and they are expected to set examples on how to live a life based on what is taught in the Bible. But, they are also responsible for doing deeds with the intention for the achievement and growth of the Church’s goals, views, and principles.

The difference between a pastor and a reverend, however, can be seen by looking at the function of these labels when they are attached to a specific name. The name ‘Pastor’ is addressed to a noun, or particularly a person, it could be the leader or minister of a church. 

On the contrary, ‘reverend,’ according to the dictionary, is an adjective which is used to address an honorable person who is worthy of being revered. Reverend is also used as a title of respect applied or affixed to the name of a member of clergy or religious order.

A pastor is also a spiritual leader of the church while a ‘reverend’ is a title given to a pastor, like the army rank of a captain or colonel, which shows the level of knowledge and experience in their service. However, a person with a Reverend title can execute more services within his church, such as a commemorated wedding, direct Eucharist, funeral, baptism, preaching.

However, a pastor without a Reverend title has limited areas of ministry duties. For instance, he may not be permitted to direct the Eucharist or formalize a wedding.

The Major Difference Between Pastor and Reverend

1. The word ‘pastor’ is a noun. A pastor is addressed as a minister or priest in charge of a church. He is also a person that provides spiritual care to a number of people.

2. The word  ‘reverend’ is an adjective. A reverend is a title prefixed to a member of a religious order. It also refers to the features of a clergy.

3. A pastor is mainly a clergyman , priest or minister who is in charge of a particular congregation.

4. Reverend refers to being worthy of reverence, a description that is attributed to elevated status.

5. Using the word ‘reverend’ as a stand-alone noun is not proper, however, it is accepted in some informal language uses.

The Major Difference Between Percentage and Percentile

The Major Difference between Percentage and Percentile: Percentage and percentile are two closely similar ideas concepts, but they are different. Percentage is more intimate of both concepts to most people. It is significant to get familiar with the difference between Percentage and Percentile. So in this article, we will show you the major difference between percentage and percentile.

In our day by day activities, both Mathematical expressions are used in different circumstances to get answers for clear issues. It is central to get familiar with the percentile and rate recipe to sort the issues.

The most intense difference between percentage and percentile originates from the idea of Relative Grading. Percentage would only be your imprints contrary with the complete imprints communicated as far as 100. However, percentile brings into thought the imprints scored by others too.


Percentage is a Mathematical weight which is written out of a total of 100. The symbol which is used to represent the percentage is “%”. This symbol is also used to represent the denominator value is 100.

This symbol can be written as portions or decimals. For the examination step, a rate is the standard procedure to separate the amounts. It also gives data about the proportion and ratios. Typically, percentages are used in such areas as calculating interest rates in finance, to calculating student’s grades at college and school.

The Percentages gives information about proportions and ratios. It is frequently easier to use and understand differences when we use percentages rather than fractions with different denominators.

For instance, the percentage of all people who are female is 50 or very close at least, which means that 50 out of 100 (percent) of people are female. Also, the percentage of alcohol in a beer might be 4, meaning that 4 parts out of 100 are alcohol.


This is a percentage of values found below a certain value. Percentiles show all the observations of a given incident, below a specific percentage of that incident.

However, percentages give you a sign of how well an individual person performed on a test while percentiles give you a sign of how well that person did compare to others. For instance, let’s say the 75th percentile on a test is 160. This means that if you scored 160 then you scored higher than 75% of the people that took that same test.

Although, some percentiles are also named quartiles as they are at the ¼ as well as ¾ positions on the curve. Percentiles are often used in standardized tests to start a ranking system of accomplishment.

It is what percentile the score falls similarly to other test scores that matter. It is also based on dividing up a normal distribution of values into percentiles; the most significant of these are the 25th, 50th and 75th percentile.

The Major Difference Between Percentage and Percentile

  • Percentage is a number out of 100, while percentile is a score at or below which a specific  percentage of the distribution lies.
  • The symbol for percentage is the percent sign “%” while percentile is shown with xth, where x is a number.
  • Percentile is a value below which a specific percentage of values are found.
  • Percentiles are changed scores that refer to a percentage of test-takers.
  • A percentage does not have quartiles. But the percentile has quartiles.
  • A percentage can also be written in the form of decimals but percentile cannot be written in the form of decimals.
  • Percentile is also based on the rank of numbers while percentages aren’t.
  • A percentile is based on the differentiation of one case with various cases while percentage, on the other hand, is based on only one case.
  • Percentile depends on the normal distribution. While, a percentage does not depend on the normal distribution.
  • A percentages can also be written as a ratio, but percentiles cannot be written as a ratio.

The Difference Between Java 7 and Java 8

The Difference Between Java 7 and Java 8: Programming languages are formal languages made up of sets of instructions used in computer programming to produce different kinds of output. Java 7 and Java 8 were absolutely released by Oracle Corporation that changed the world of computer programming. In this article, we will show you the difference between Java 7 and Java 8.

Java 7 and its characteristic

The launching of Java SE 7 was an assertion of Oracle’s commitment to the technology and language. It was also a big accomplishment for the tech giant’s two-year ownership of Sun Microsystems and the company that created Java programming language. The final acquisition was finalized by Oracle Corporation on Jan 27, 2010. The American technology giant also hosted a global event to celebrate the launch of Java Standard Edition 7.

However, Sun Microsystems is now a fully owned subordinate of Oracle Corporation and with the acquisition, the American tech giant owns MySQL, Solaris, and the Sun line of server, storage, and network hardware.

Java 7 was a huge accomplishment for Oracle after the acquisition and a major upgrade for Java in five years which almost took the firm to an entire new level. This new version has addressed many trends that strictly swept over the programming language.

The Java 7 release was also strong as it offers some major upgrades including major bug fixes and improved support for non-Java dynamic languages and type interference support for generic class creation.

The Major Characteristic of Java 7 include:

  • Upgraded class-loader architecture.
  • Compressed 64-bit pointers.
  • Multiple exception handling.
  • Upgraded Rowset 1.1 and JDBC 4.1.
  • JVM support for dynamically supported languages.
  • String object in switch statement.
  • Lastly, automatic resource management in a try statement and much more.
Java 8 and its characteristics

On the launching of Java 8 in March 2014, Lambda Expressions was the most anticipated characteristic. But Lambda Expressions was introduced. The use of this Lambda Expressions made Java to be closer to functional programming which it was not used to be.

It also introduced the lambda expression through which you can write code in a more practical style. Java 8 is useful in the iteration, filtering and extracting data. Also, method reference is a new term introduced in Java 8 to refer to the method of the functional interface. It is linked to the lambda expression.

However, each library function is new in Java 8 and it has made life easy for the developers to iterate elements quickly and easily. A new Date and Time API has been introduced in Java 8 and a new class named Optional has been included to deal with NullPointerException.

Some major characteristics that were initially planned for the Java SE 7 were featured on Java 8. Also, the lambda expression is still the biggest update to the model which tends to increase productivity in many business models.

Major characteristics of Java 8 include:

  • Language-level support for Lambda Expressions
  • Unsigned Integer Arithmetic
  • Interface default and Static Methods
  • New Date and Time API
  • Parallel Sorting
  • Concurrent API enhancements
  • Null Reference Template
  • New and improved Stream API
  • Removal of permanent generation
  • New JavaScript Engine, Nashorn

The Difference between Java 7 and Java 8

  • The codenamed for Java 7 is Dolphin while  the code name for Java 8 is Spider.
  • Java 7 was the first and the main update to the programming language under the ownership and stewardship of Oracle Corporation.
  • Java 7 also added a language support for String in switch so users can rewrite codes more easily and efficiently.
  • Java 7 is supported on Win XP while Java 8 is not officially supported on Win XP. 
  • Java 7 was released on Jan 27, 2010 and Java 8 was released on March 18, 2014.
  • Java 8 also gets a new and improved Date/Time API, improved JavaScript engine, new streaming API. Secure random generation, concurrent accumulators and much more.

The Difference Between Rooster and Chicken

The Difference Between Rooster and Chicken: Chickens are generally known for their fleshy combs, lobed wattles hanging below the bill, and high-arched tails. While a rooster is a male chicken and is more generally known as a cock while the hen is female. In general, while differentiating between the types of chicken, ‘if it crows, it’s a rooster; if it lays an egg, it’s a hen’ is a very helpful saying. In this article, we will show you the difference between rooster and chicken.

A rooster is also known to protect the group of chickens, especially the female ones. It is commonly known to be more active and aggressive than female chickens.

After a cockerel becomes mature at about one year old, he becomes a rooster and starts mating with the hens. Roosters then become pushy, bold and aggressive as they compete for hens to add to their flock. However, if roosters aren’t culled “separated”, they will scratch each other using their sharp hackles and sickles located on their legs and feet.

Rooster and Hen

In understanding the major difference in different types of chickens, one should be familiar with the characteristics of the male and female chicken.


Roosters frequently have different hackle or neck feathers and saddle or back feathers. In roosters, these feathers are frequently pointed, while on hens, these feathers are rounded. Rooster Tail feathers also have a curve to them. So because of their shape, they are commonly called ‘sickle feathers.’


Roosters frequently have thicker legs than hens and have pointed, sharp spurs. The rooster often uses these spurs to protect the flock and defend himself. They are also sharp, bone-like growths just above the toes on the rooster’s leg. However, old hens will sometimes have spurs, but they will not be as long or sharp as those on roosters.

Wattles and Combs

Roosters typically have tall, upright and larger combs than hens. If a rooster is young, he will have a more pronounced comb than female chicks of the same age. Roosters do likely have redder combs and wattles at an earlier age than those chicks of the same age. When they are mature, their wattles are very large when compared to hen’s.


Roosters frequently have mist plumage than hens. Their colors are usually so bright and vibrant. Many roosters have shining feathers that capture the light and show off beautiful green and blue highlights. If the bird has shining plumage, it is most likely to be a rooster.


The female chickens do not crow during the crack of dawn. It is actually not only that rooster’s crow in the dawn but also during the daytime, and it is often said that it produces such sounds for protecting their area of land.

The Difference Between Rooster and Chicken

1. A male chicken is called a rooster while a female chicken is called a hen.

2. Contrary to the female chickens, the roosters are also known for their ‘cock-a-doodle-doo’ during the crack of dawn.

3. Roosters are often grown mainly for their meat and fighting. Cockfighting is very famous and it is practiced in many parts of the world. On the other hand, female chickens are reared only for the eggs.

4. Contrary to other chickens, a rooster has a thick comb which is a crest of flesh on the head. The rooster combs are more red and famous than the other chickens.

5. Roosters actually have more stamina and strength than the female chickens.

6. A rooster also has bright feather colors when compared to chickens.

7. Roosters are very famous to be sociable around humans but are known to be hostile among their own kind.

The Major Difference Between Duties and Responsibilities

The Major Difference Between Duties and Responsibilities: Duties and responsibilities are simply mistaken for each other but circumstantially are different. Duty is a virtuous commitment to someone or something, while responsibility is the condition of being responsible for something or someone. In this article, we will outline the major difference between duties and responsibilities.

Duty reflects respect or obedience, for the work, rules, superiors or elders while responsibility indicates responsibility for the performance or nonperformance of something.


The word duty originates from the Latin word ‘debere’, which means obligation to call to do something. It also determines what a person should have done in the normal course of action in general or in certain circumstances.

Duty is what we have to do according to the conventions, law or moral rules. It can also be differentiated according to the law and regulations, but duty also has personal suggestions based on one’s values, too.

However, the law ruling the country has some specified certain duties which must be followed by each and every citizen. It reveals an invisible force that binds a person to do something which is seen as the right in the eyes of law, whose non-performance may end in certain fine or punishment.

Duty is also the required task, conduct, work or service that comes into view of an individual’s position, occupation or role. Although, in management, the word “duty” is used to describe the tasks or functions which an employee has to perform, as it is a part of his/her job. A sense of duty also means to obey political, legal and moral rules which are set out by an organization.


Responsibility is used correspondingly with the word duty. It originated from the Latin word ‘respondere’ which means to vouch; respond to something.

It also defines the state of being responsible as in morally accountable or having an obligation to do something. Responsibility involves decision-making and it comes with one having specific duties. It also comes in two parts: it can be given to you, but you also have to take the responsibility by accepting the role or task given to you.

It also makes a person liable or accountable for the completion of the task, or safekeeping of valuables or cash, or the protection of a person. Therefore, the person who takes up the responsibility has to be ready to bear the consequences, for his or her actions or decisions taken in this regard, which may either be positive or negative.

Responsibility is frequently attached with the authority to give directions and take appropriate actions when required. When authority is assigned to a person, he or she becomes responsible for its performance and the best use of the assigned authority.

The Major Difference Between Duties and Responsibilities

1. The term ‘duty’ is a moral commitment to someone or something, while responsibility is the condition of being responsible.

2. Duty also demands the sacrifice of self-interest.

3. As duty means a moral commitment, it indicates an active feeling for doing something.

4. Responsibility can also be termed as an ability to act at one’s own will, without no supervision. It is the commitment to successfully end an assigned task.

5. In responsibility, a person is simply responsible for the whole task and its outcome. It is also the responsibility of the parents to give good education to their children.

6. Once a person involves himself with some duty or if he has been charged with a duty, then that person has fully committed himself to it.

The Major Difference Between Panther and Jaguars

The Major Difference Between Panther and Jaguars: Panther and jaguars are both famous predatory wild cats. These cats are actually the most beautiful and powerful beasts and they are important symbols in the old Native American cultures.

However, apart from being ‘Big wild Cats’ and predatory, there are different characteristics that differentiate Panthers from Jaguars. So in this article, we will show you the major difference between Panther and Jaguars.

Panther and Jaguar

Panther and Jaguar are two different big cats as Jaguars are larger and stockier and are mainly found in the Western hemisphere. Whereas, Panthers are powerful, intelligent, and exotic animals, and are mostly found in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

Panther animals are so powerful. In general, it occurs in both species the jaguar and the leopard. Panthera pardus is a group in the Felidae family.

The difference between these animals are best seen by the statue. The jaguar is constructed more firmly. They can also be easily recognized by their head. In most cases, the least demanding path is to find them in their normal environment.


This is a kind of a leopard, particularly a dark one. The Panther is also called the Black Panther and it is a huge individual from the Big Cat family. Panthers are natives to America, Asia, and Africa.

The Panther is not a unique species itself, the name is commonly used to refer to Big Cat with a dark-hued, most especially Leopards or Jaguars. Panthers are probably the most grounded climber of all things considered.

This Big Cat can range in size and weight considerably depending on species, with some males being able to reach even 550 pounds (250 kg) and tigers usually reaching between 90-306 kg.

Their habitats differ greatly too, from Asia to Africa and the Americas and from tropical regions to deserts and even polar to freezing alpine areas.


Jaguar is the only big cat in the ‘Panthera’ group that can be found living in the Americas. It is the third-largest cat (after tigers and lions) and they can also be found in the southern United States, Mexico, most of Central America, and all over the north of South America.

The jaguar is frequently confused with the leopard due to the markings on the coat. They are, however, heavier, larger, and sturdier than leopards. The rosettes on their patterning are larger, less closely packed, and typically have black dots in the centers. Jaguars live in America, while leopards can be found in Asia and Africa.

Jaguar is usually a good swimmer. It has a very powerful bite compared to the other big cats. This allows this Big Cat to kill prey by biting through their skulls. Jaguars also have short tails and legs and are quite stocky, but they are sturdy and powerful.

The Major Difference Between Panther and Jaguars

1. Panthers are grouped to Class Felidae and Genus Panthera.

2. Jaguars are grouped to class Mammalia and Family Panthera.

3. Black Panther is so powerful and one of the strongest climbers of all known felines belonging to the big cat family.

4. Panthers are lonely animals and mostly nocturnal.

5. Contrary to leopards and jaguars, Panthers don’t have any spot on their body or tail, they rather have smooth shiny skin.

6. Jaguar is actually one of the strongest species in the world and it is able to crack a skull or the shell of a turtle.

7. Panther hunt on small species of herbivores.

8. Panthers may be black in color as the jaguars may be spotted.

9. There is also a huge difference in the weight and length of panthers and jaguars.

10. Jaguars would typically weigh around 124-211 lbs. or 56-96 kilos whereas, the Panthers would weigh around 100-250 pounds.

Major Difference Between Democrat and Republican

Major Difference between Democrat and Republican: Democrats and Republicans are the two most notable political parties in the United States. These two parties control America’s political landscape but differ greatly in their philosophies and ideals ranging from taxes, the role of government, Medicare, gun control, immigration, healthcare, abortion and more. In this article, we will show you the major difference between democrat and republican.

Democrats and Republicans are still the two historically largest parties, which hold the majority of the seats in the Senate and in the House of Representatives. Democrats and Republicans have different views and positions on several key issues, including economic, political, military and social matters.

The History of Both Parties

The Democratic Party is associated with the prominent Democratic donkey, which first appeared during Democrat Andrew Jackson’s 1828 presidential campaign. However, after his opponent called him a donkey, Jackson decided to use the image of the animal which he believed to be smart, brave and strong-willed on his campaign posters. The symbol became very famous when the cartoonist Thomas Nast used the donkey in newspaper cartoons1.

The Democratic Party began in 1828 as an anti-Federal faction and grew to become one of the leading political forces of the United States. Whereas, the Republican Party is associated with the Republican elephant. 

In the year 1874, Thomas Nast introduced the elephant in one of his cartoons and with time, the strong and noble animal became the symbol of the Republican Party2. The party is known as “GOP” Grand Old Party

The GOP began in 1854 which is a few years later than its Democratic counterpart to stop slavery, which was seen as unconstitutional.

Major Difference Between Democrat and Republican


Democrats and Republicans have a main disagreement in the way they think tax payment should be made. However, Republicans believe that both rich and poor should pay the same share of taxes while Democrats have always insisted that tax cuts should only apply to low income and middle-income households.

Labor and Free Trade

Democrats also believe that corporations have too much power. They are in support of government intervention to even out the field. For instance, they also believe that a set minimum wage helps to bring more money to the pockets of all Americans which is good for the economy.

Republicans are pro-free markets as they don’t like to see increased government regulations or interference in the labor market. This is the reason the GOP is opposed to increasing the minimum wage arguing that businesses need to keep costs low so that they can excel to the benefit of all Americans.

Health Care

Republicans encourage private social insurance frameworks and agree that the tips of the national medicinal services framework ought not to be completely in the hands of the legislature.

Democrats also encourage public universal health care. They believe that the government should intervene to assist Americans who struggle to cover their health care expenses.

Death penalty

Republicans support the death penalty and believe it is a just punishment for some crimes while most democrats are against the death penalty and believe that capital punishment should be reduced into life sentences.

Social Programs

Democrats believed that it’s the job of the government to help the most ill-protected people in society. This is the reason they favor social programs like food stamps and Medicaid. While Republicans, on the other hand, have always believed the government should focus more on the basic necessity of all citizens.


Democrats also believe at a sweet woman will have the rights to do abortion in reproductive health care service. While Republicans want to ban it from the constitution. Republicans are against the killing of a fetus.

Same-Sex Marriage Rights

Democrat’s party is in support of Same-sex marriage. Whereas, the Republican Party is against it. It is another major difference between the democratic and republican party.